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The Boeing 707 is a mid-size, narrow-body four-engine jet airliner that was manufactured by Boeing from 1958 to 1979. Its name is most commonly pronounced as "Seven Oh Seven". Versions of the aircraft have a capacity from 140 to 202 passengers and a range of 3,735 nautical miles (6,820 to 6,917 km). Developed as Boeing's first jet airliner, the 707 features a swept-wing design with podded engines. Dominating passenger Aviation|air transport in the 1960s, and remaining common throughout the 1970s, the 707 is generally credited with ushering in the Jet Age.[1][2] Although it was not the first jetliner in service, the 707 was the first to be commercially successful. It established Boeing as one of the largest manufacturers of passenger aircraft, and led to the later series of aircraft with "7x7" designations. The subsequent 727, 737, and 757 also share elements of the 707's fuselage design.

The 707 was developed from the 367-80, a prototype jet aircraft which Boeing produced as a design study in 1954. A larger fuselage cross-section and other design modifications resulted in the initial production 707-120, powered by Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet engines, which first flew on December 20, 1957. Pan American World Airways began 707 service with the type's first commercial flight on October 26, 1958. Subsequent derivatives included the shortened long-range 707-138 and the stretched 707-320, both of which entered service in 1959. A smaller short-range variant, the 720, was introduced in 1960. The 707-420, a version of the stretched 707 with Rolls-Royce Conway 508 turbofans, debuted in 1960, while Pratt & Whitney JT3D turbofans debuted on the 707-120B and 707-320B models in 1961 and 1962, respectively.

During its service career, the 707 has been used in a variety of roles, including domestic, transcontinental, and transatlantic operations. The 707 has also been used for cargo and military applications. A convertible passenger-freighter model, the 707-320C, entered service in 1963, and passenger 707s have been modified to freighter configurations. Military derivatives include the E-3 Sentry airborne reconnaissance aircraft, the KC-135 Stratotanker airborne refueler, and the C-137 Stratoliner and VC-137C VIP transports. During the 707's production run, Boeing produced and delivered a total of 1,011 aircraft, including the smaller 720 series. Over 800 military versions were also produced. As of August 2011, 10 examples of the 707 remain in airline service.[3]

DevelopmentEdit

Model 367-80 originsEdit

Boeing, during and immediately after World War II, was known for its military aircraft. The company had produced innovative and important bombers, from the B-17 Flying Fortress and B-29 Superfortress, to the jet-powered B-47 Stratojet and B-52 Stratofortress. The company's civil aviation department lagged far behind Douglas and other competitors, the only noteworthy airliners being the Boeing 314 Clipper and 307 Stratoliner. During 1949–1950, Boeing embarked on serious studies for a new jet transport, realizing that any design must have the potential to fulfill both the military and civil markets. At the time, aerial refueling was increasingly becoming a standard operational technique, with over 800 KC-97 Stratotankers being on order. With the advent of the jet age, a new tanker was required to meets the USAF's fleet of jet-powered bombers; this was where Boeing's new design would potentially win military orders.[4]

Boeing studied numerous wing and engine configurations for its new transport/tanker, some of which were based on the B-47 and C-97, before settling on Model 367-80. The "Dash 80" took less than two years from project launch in 1952 to rollout on May 14, 1954, then first flew on July 15, 1954. It was powered by the Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet engine, which was the civilian version of the J57 used on many military aircraft of the day, including the F-100 fighter and the B-52 bomber.

The prototype was conceived as a proof of concept aircraft for both military and civilian use: The United States Air Force was the first customer for the design, using it as the KC-135 Stratotanker midair refueling platform. It was far from certain that the passenger 707 would be profitable. At the time, Boeing was making nearly all of its money from military contracts: Its last passenger transport, the Boeing 377 Stratocruiser, had netted the company a $15 million loss before it was purchased by the Air Force as the KC-97 Stratotanker.[5] In a demonstration flight over Lake Washington outside of Seattle, on August 7, 1955, test pilot Tex Johnston performed a barrel-roll in the 367-80 prototype.

File:Boeing 707-123 B (1959) Cockpit.jpg

The 132-inch (3,350 mm) fuselage of the Dash 80 was wide enough only to fit four-abreast (two-plus-two) seating (in the manner of the Stratocruiser). Answering customers demands and under Douglas competition, Boeing soon realized that this would not provide a viable payload, so decided to widen the fuselage to 144 in (3,660 mm), the same as the KC-135 Stratotanker, which would allow five-abreastTemplate:Disputed-inline seating—and the shared use of the KC-135's tooling.[6] However, Douglas Aircraft had launched its DC-8 with a fuselage width of Template:Convert. The airlines liked the extra space and six-abreast seating, and so Boeing was obliged to increase the 707's cabin width again to compete, this time to Template:Convert.[7] This meant that little of the tooling that was made for the Dash 80 was usable for the 707. The extra cost meant the 707 did not become profitable until some years after it would have if these modifications had not been necessary.

File:Boeing 707-329 Sabena short fin 1960.jpg

Production and testingEdit

The first flight of the first production 707-120 took place on December 20, 1957, and FAA certification followed on September 18, 1958.[8] A number of changes were incorporated into the production models from the prototype. A Krueger flap was installed along the leading edge between the inner and outer engines on early 707-120 and -320 models.[9][10]

The 707 was introduced into service during the 4 year hiatus while the Comets were withdrawn from service giving Boeing a near monopoly in the sales of jet passenger transport allowing them a dominant commercial position. Albeit, with the 707 having an increased passenger capacity, range and speed.Template:Cn

Further developmentsEdit

The initial standard model was the 707-120 with JT3C turbojet engines. Qantas ordered a shorter body version called the 707-138, which was a -120 that had six fuselage frames removed, three in front of the wings, and three aft. The frames in the 707 were each 20 inches (500 mm) apart, so this resulted in a net shortening of 10 ft (3 m) to 10 ft (3 m) to 134 ft 6 in (41.0 m). Because the maximum takeoff weight remained the same 247,000 lb (112 t) as that of the -120, the 138 was able to fly the longer routes that Qantas needed.[10] Braniff International Airways ordered the higher-thrust version with Pratt & Whitney JT4A engines, the 707-220. The final major derivative was the 707-320, which featured an extended-span wing and JT4A engines, while the 707-420 was the same as the -320 but with Rolls-Royce Conway turbofan engines. British certification requirements relating to engine-out go-arounds also forced Boeing to increase the height of the tail fin on all 707 variants, as well as add a ventral fin, which was retrofitted on earlier -120 and -220 aircraft. These modifications also aided in the mitigation of dutch roll by providing more yaw stability.

File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F009536-0002, Staatspräsident von Pakistan in München.jpg

Though initially fitted with turbojet engines, the dominant engine for the Boeing 707 family was the Pratt & Whitney JT3D, a turbofan variant of the JT3C with lower fuel consumption as well as higher thrust. JT3D-engined 707s and 720s were denoted with a "B" suffix. While many 707-120Bs and 720Bs were conversions of existing JT3C-powered machines, 707-320Bs were available only as newly-built aircraft, as they had a stronger structure to support a maximum take-off weight increased by 19,000 lb (8,600 kg), along with minor modifications to the wing. The 707-320B series enabled non-stop westbound flights from Europe to the US west coast.

The final 707 variant was the 707-320C, (C for "Convertible"), which was fitted with a large fuselage door for cargo applications. This aircraft also had a significantly revised wing featuring three-section leading-edge flaps. This provided an additional improvement to takeoff and landing performance, and also allowed the ventral fin to be removed (although the taller fin was retained). 707-320Bs built after 1963 used the same wing as the -320C and were known as 707-320B Advanced aircraft.

Production of the passenger 707 ended in 1978. In total, 1,010 707s were built for civil use, though many of these found their way to military service. The purpose-built military variants remained in production until 1991.

Traces of the 707 are still found in the 737, which uses a modified version of the 707's fuselage, as well as the same external nose and cockpit configuration as the those of 707. These were also used on the previous Boeing 727, while the Boeing 757 also used the 707 fuselage cross-section. The Chinese government sponsored development of the Shanghai Y-10 during the 1970s, which was a near-carbon-copy of the 707; however, this did not enter production.

DesignEdit

WingsEdit

File:Boeing 707 landing gear.JPG

The 707 wings are swept back at 35 degrees and, like all swept-wing aircraft, displayed an undesirable "Dutch roll" flying characteristic that manifested itself as an alternating yawing and rolling motion. Boeing already had considerable experience with this on the B-47 and B-52, and had developed the yaw damper system on the B-47 that would be applied to later swept wing configurations like the 707. However, many new 707 pilots had no experience with this phenomenon, as they were transitioning from straight-wing propeller-driven aircraft such as the Douglas DC-7 and Lockheed Constellation.

On one customer acceptance flight, where the yaw damper was turned off to familiarize the new pilots with flying techniques, a trainee pilot's actions violently exacerbated the Dutch roll motion and caused three of the four engines to be torn from the wings. The plane, a brand new 707-227, N7071, destined for Braniff, crash-landed on a river bed north of Seattle at Arlington, Washington, killing four of the eight occupants.[11]

In his autobiography, test pilot Tex Johnston described a Dutch roll incident he experienced as a passenger on an early commercial 707 flight. As the aircraft's movements did not cease and most of the passengers became ill, he suspected a misrigging of the directional autopilot (yaw damper). He went to the cockpit and found the crew unable to understand and resolve the situation. He introduced himself and relieved the ashen-faced captain who immediately left the cockpit feeling ill. Johnston disconnected the faulting autopilot and manually stabilized the plane "with two slight control movements".[12]

EnginesEdit

File:Boeing 707 engineviewedit.jpg

The 707s used engine-driven turbocompressors to supply high-pressure air for pressurization. The engines could not supply sufficient bleed air for this purpose without a serious loss of thrust. On many commercial 707s, the outer port (#1) engine mount is distinctly different from the other three, as this is the only engine not fitted with a turbocompressor, as seen in the adjoining image. With engines 2 through 4 being fitted with TCs, they provide the triple redundancy required of the aircraft's cabin pressurization and air-conditioning system.

The P&W JT3D-3B engines are readily identifiable by the large gray secondary air inlet doors in the nose cowl. These doors are fully open (sucked in at the rear) during takeoff to provide additional air. When the engines are throttled back to cruise, the doors are shut.

The 707 was the first commercial jet aircraft to be fitted with clamshell type thrust reverses on each of the four engine.[13]

Upgraded enginesEdit

File:Pratt-707re-N707HE-071126-03-16.jpg

Pratt & Whitney, in a joint venture with Seven Q Seven (SQS) and Omega Air, has developed the JT8D-219Template:When as a re-engine powerplant for Boeing 707-based aircraft, calling their modified configuration a 707RE.[14] Northrop Grumman has selected the -219 to re-engine the United States Air Force's fleet of 19 E-8 Joint STARS aircraft, which will allow the J-STARS more time on station due to the engine's greater fuel efficiency. NATO also plans to re-engine their fleet of E-3 Sentry AWACS aircraft. The -219 is publicized as being half the cost of the competing 707 re-engine powerplant, the CFM International CFM56, and is 40 dB quieter than JT3D engines that are being replaced.[14]

Operational historyEdit

The first commercial orders for the 707 came on October 13, 1955,[15] when Pan Am committed to 20 707s and 25 Douglas DC-8s, a dramatic increase in passenger capacity over its existing fleet of propeller aircraft. The competition between the 707 and Douglas DC-8 was fierce. Several major airlines committed only to the DC-8, as Douglas Aircraft was a more established maker of passenger aircraft at the time. To stay competitive, Boeing made a late and costly decision to redesign and enlarge the 707's wing to help increase range and payload. The new version was numbered 707-320.

Pan Am was the first airline to operate the 707; the aircraft's first commercial flight was from New York to Paris on October 26, 1958 with a fuel stop in Gander, Newfoundland. In December, National Airlines operated the first U.S. domestic jet airline flights between New York/Idlewild and Miami, using 707s leased from Pan Am; American Airlines was the first domestic airline to fly its own jets, on January 25, 1959. TWA started domestic 707-131 flights in March and Continental Airlines started 707-124 flights in June; airlines that had ordered only the DC-8, such as United, Delta, and Eastern, were left without jets until September and lost market share on transcontinental flights. Qantas was the first non-US airline to use the 707s, starting in 1959.

File:Air France Boeing 707-300 Manteufel.jpg

The 707 quickly became the most popular jetliner of its time. Its popularity led to rapid developments in airport terminals, runways, airline catering, baggage handling, reservations systems, and other air transport infrastructure. The advent of the 707 also led to the upgrading of air traffic control systems to prevent interference with military jet operations.[16]

As the 1960s drew to a close, the exponential growth in air travel led to the 707's being a victim of its own success. The 707 was now too small to handle the increased passenger densities on the routes for which it was designed. Stretching the fuselage was not a viable option because the installation of larger, more powerful engines would in turn need a larger undercarriage, which was not feasible given the design's limited ground clearance. Boeing's answer to the problem was the first twin-aisle airliner—the Boeing 747. The 707's first-generation engine technology was also rapidly becoming obsolete in the areas of noise and fuel economy.

File:B707 Saha Airlines EP-SHV THR March 2011.jpg

In 1982, during the Falklands War the Argentine Air Force extensively used civilian 707s for long-range maritime patrol, with some of them being intercepted and shepherded away by Royal Navy Sea Harriers,[17] it also led to the conversion of British Nimrods to carry Sidewinder air-to-air missiles after a casual encounter.

Trans World Airlines flew the last scheduled 707 flight for passengers by a US carrier on October 30, 1983,[18] although 707s remained in scheduled service by airlines from other nations for much longer. For example, Middle East Airlines (MEA) of Lebanon flew 707s and 720s in front-line passenger service until the end of the 1990s. Since LADE of Argentina took its 707-320B from regular service in 2007, Saha Air Lines of Iran is the last airline to keep 707s in scheduled passenger service.

Operations of the 707 were threatened by the enactment of international noise regulations in 1985. Shannon Engineering of Seattle, Washington developed a hush kit with funding from Tracor, Inc, of Austin, Texas. By the late 1980s, 172 Boeing 707s had been equipped with the Quiet 707 package. Boeing acknowledged that more 707s were in service then than before the hush kit was available.[19] Most remaining 707s are in freighter form, or as Business Jets.[20]

VariantsEdit

Although certificated as Series 100s, 200s, 300s, etc., the different 707 variants are more commonly known as Series 120s, 220s, 320s, and so on, where the "20" part of the designation is Boeing's "customer number" for its development aircraft.

707-020Edit

The original designation for what ultimately became the Boeing 720. Launch customer United Air Lines was a Douglas DC-8 customer and preferred not to be seen as buying the competing 707 hence the 720 designation. American Airlines always referred to its 720s as 707s.

707-120Edit

File:Turkish Airlines Boeing 707 at Zurich - April 1976.jpg

The 707-120 was the first production 707 variant, with a longer, wider fuselage, and greater wingspan than the Dash-80. The cabin had a full set of rectangular windows and could carry up to 179 passengers. It was designed for transcontinental routes and often required a refuelling stop on the North Atlantic. It had four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-6 turbojets, civil versions of the military J57, initially producing 13,000 lb (57.8 kN) with water injection. Maximum takeoff weight was 247,000 lb and first flight was on December 20, 1957. Major orders were the launch order for 20 707-121 aircraft by Pan American and an American Airlines order for 30 707-123 aircraft. The first revenue flight was on October 26, 1958.[21] 56 were built, plus 7 short body -138s.

The 707-138 was based on the -120 but had a ten foot reduction in fuselage length, 5 feet (3 frames) removed ahead and behind the wing, giving increased range. Maximum take off weight was the same 247,000 lb as the standard version. It was a variant for Qantas and had Boeing customer number 38 for Qantas. A total of 7 -138s were built, first carrying passengers in July 1959.

File:707120Bkink.JPG

The 707-120B had JT3D-1 turbofan engines, which were quieter, more powerful, and more fuel-efficient, producing 17,000 lbf (75.6 kN) each, with the later JT3D-3 version giving 18,000 lbf (80 kN). (This thrust did not require water injection, eliminating both the system and the 5000-6000 lb weight of the water itself.) The -120B had the wing modifications introduced on the 720 and a longer tailplane; a total of 72 were built, 31 for American and 41 for TWA, plus 6 short body -138Bs for Qantas. American had its 23 surviving -123s converted to 123Bs but TWA did not convert its 15 -131s. The only other conversions were Pan American's 5 surviving -121s and one surviving -139, the 3 aircraft delivered to the USAF as -153s and the 7 short body Qantas -138s. The first flight of the -120B was on 22 June 1960 and American carried the first passengers in March 1961. Maximum weight was 258,000 lb (117,025 kg) for both the long and short body versions.

707-220Edit

The 707-220 was designed for hot and high operations with more powerful 15,800 lb (70.80 kN) Pratt & Whitney JT4A-3 turbojets. Five of these were produced, but only four were ultimately delivered with one being lost during a test flight. All were for Braniff International Airways and carried the model number 707-227; the first entered service in December 1959. This version was made obsolete by the arrival of the turbofan-powered 707-120B.

707-320Edit

The 707-320 Intercontinental is a stretched version of the turbojet-powered 707-120, initially powered by JT4A-3 or JT4A-5 turbojets producing 15,800 lb (70.1 kN) each (most eventually got 17,500 lb (78.4 kN) JT4A-11s). The interior allowed for up to 189 passengers due to an 80-inch (2,000 mm) fuselage stretch ahead of the wing (from 138 ft 10 in (42.32 m) to 145 ft 6 in), with extensions to both the tail and horizontal stabilizer extending the aircraft's length further.[22] while a longer wing carried more fuel, increasing range by 1,600 miles (2,600 km) and allowing the aircraft to operate as true transoceanic aircraft. The wing modifications included outboard and inboard inserts, as well as a kink in the trailing edge to add area inboard.[10] Takeoff weight was increased to 302,000 lb (137,000 kg) initially, and to 312,000 lb (142,000 kg) with the higher-rated JT4A's and centre section tanks. First flight was on January 11, 1958; 69 turbojet 707-320s were produced, the first passengers being carried (by Pan Am) in August 1959. No -320 Intercontinental models were re-engined with fan engines in civil use, but around year 2000 the Israeli Air Force re-engined two ex-Sabena -320 based military tankers.

707-420Edit

File:BOAC Boeing 707-436 Wheatley.jpg

The 707-420 was identical to the -320 but fitted with Rolls Royce Conway 508 turbofans (or by-pass turbojets as they were known at the time). First announced customer was Lufthansa. BOAC's controversial order was announced six months later but the British carrier got the first service-ready aircraft off the production line. The British Air Registration Board refused to give the aircraft a certificate of airworthiness in the form presented, citing insufficient lateral control, excessive rudder forces and the ability to over rotate on take off, stalling the wing on the ground (a fault of the de Havilland Comet 1). Boeing responded by adding 40 inches to the vertical tail, applying full instead of partial rudder boost and fitting an underfin to prevent over rotation. These modifications became standard on all 707 variants and were retrofitted to all previously built aircraft. Only 37 -420s were built, for BOAC, Lufthansa, Air-India, El Al and Varig; Lufthansa was the first to carry passengers, in March 1960.

707-320BEdit

File:Boeing 707-320B Pan Am Freer.jpg

The 707-320B saw the application of the JT3D turbofan to the Intercontinental but with aerodynamic refinements. The wing was modified from the -320 by adding a second inboard kink, a dog-toothed leading edge, and curved low drag wingtips instead of the earlier blunt ones.[10] These new wingtips increased overall wingspan by three feet. Takeoff gross weight was increased to 328,000 lb (149,000 kg). The 175 707-320B aircraft were all new-build; no original -320 models were converted to fan engines in civilian use. First service was June 1962, with Pan Am.

The 707-320B Advanced is an improved version of the -320B, adding the three-section leading-edge flaps already seen on the -320C. These reduced takeoff and landing speeds and altered the lift distribution of the wing, allowing the ventral fin found on earlier 707s to be deleted. From 1965 -320Bs had the uprated -320C undercarriage allowing the same 335,000 lb (152,000 kg) MTOW. These were often identified as 707-320BA-H.

707-320CEdit

File:Ecuatoriana Boeing 707-321C Hoppe.jpg

The 707-320C has a convertible passenger–freight configuration, which became the most widely produced variant of the 707. The 707-320C added a strengthened floor and a new cargo door to the -320B model. The wing was fitted with three section leading edge flaps which allowed the deletion of the underfin. Three hundred thirty-five of these variants were built, including a small number with JT3D-7 engines (19000 lb takeoff thrust) and a takeoff gross weight of 335,000 lb (152,000 kg). Ironically, most -320Cs were delivered as passenger aircraft, airlines hoping that the cargo door would increase second hand values. The addition of two additional emergency exits, one on either side aft of the wing raised the maximum passenger capacity to a theoretical 219. Only a few aircraft were delivered as pure freighters. One of the final orders was by the Iranian Government for 14 707-3J9C aircraft capable of VIP transportation, communication, and in-flight refuelling tasks.

Other variantsEdit

The 707-700 was a test aircraft used to study the feasibility of using CFM International's CFM56 powerplants on a 707 airframe and possibly retrofitting them to existing aircraft. After a testing in 1979, N707QT, the last commercial 707 airframe, was refitted to 707-320C configuration and delivered to the Moroccan Air Force as a tanker aircraft. (This purchase was considered a "civilian" order and not a military one.) Boeing abandoned the program, since they felt it would be a threat to the Boeing 757 program. The information gathered in the test led to the eventual retrofitting program of CFM56 engines to the USAF C-135/KC-135R models, and some military versions of the 707 also used the CFM56. It is ironic that the Douglas DC-8 "Super 70" series by Cammacorp did develop commercially, extending the life of DC-8 airframes in a stricter noise regulatory environment, so there are today more DC-8s in commercial service than there are 707s.

MilitaryEdit

File:Usaf.e3sentry.750pix.jpg
File:Australian air force 707-368C (code A20-261) Perth Internatinal Airport Australia.jpg
File:Tucson05 AMARCTailsMissing.jpg

The militaries of the United States and other countries have used the civilian 707 aircraft in a variety of roles, and under different designations. (Note the 707 and U.S. Air Force's KC-135 were developed in parallel from the Boeing 367-80 prototype.)

The Boeing E-3 Sentry is a U.S. military airborne warning and control system (AWACS) aircraft based on the Boeing 707 that provides all-weather surveillance, command, control and communications.

The VC-137C variant of the Stratoliner was a special-purpose design meant to serve as Air Force One, the secure transport for the President of The United States of America. These models were in operational use from 1962 to 1990. The two aircraft remain on display: SAM 26000 is at the National Museum of the United States Air Force near Dayton, Ohio and SAM 27000 is at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California.

The Canadian Forces also operated Boeing 707 with designation CC-137 Husky (707-347C) from 1972 to 1997.

717Edit

Boeing 717 was the company designation for C-135 Stratolifter and KC-135 Stratotanker derivatives of the 367-80. The designation was later re-used in renaming the McDonnell Douglas MD-95 to Boeing 717 after the company was merged with Boeing.

OperatorsEdit

In the 1980s, the USAF acquired around 250 used 707s to provide parts for the KC-135E Stratotanker program.[23]

Although 707s are no longer employed by major airlines, as of March 2011, 43 aircraft were in use mainly with air cargo operators and air forces in Africa, Middle East, and South America. Commercial operators of the Boeing 707 include Saha Airline, BETA Cargo, Enterprise World Airways, Libyan Airlines, Mid Express Tchad, Hewa Bora Airways, and some other users with mostly stored aircraft.[24] Until November 2010, the Romanian Government used a 707-320C as a Presidential Aircraft which was operated by Romavia and which has been replaced with an Airbus A310-325, YR-LCB "Moldova".Template:Citation needed American actor John Travolta owns, and is qualified to fly as second in command, an ex-Qantas 707-138B, registration N707JT.[25][26]

The list of customer codes used by Boeing to identify specific options and livery specified by customers was started with the 707, and has been maintained through all Boeing's models. In essence the same system as used on the earlier Boeing 377, the code consisted of two digits affixed to the model number to identify the specific aircraft version. For example, Pan American Airlines was assigned code "21". Thus, a 707-320B sold to Pan Am had the model number 707-321B. The number remained constant as further aircraft were purchased; thus, when Pan American purchased the 747-100 it had the model number 747-121.

Orders and deliveriesEdit

DeliveriesEdit

1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 Total
1 1 5 14 4 5 0 9 4 3 8 8 8 2 3 6 13 8 9 1011
1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 1966 1965 1964 1963 1962 1961 1960 1959 1958 1957
7 21 11 4 10 19 59 111 118 83 61 38 34 68 80 91 77 8 0

Accidents and incidentsEdit

As of May 2011, the 707 has been in a total of 170 hull-loss occurrences[27] with 2,739 fatalities.[28]

Notable accidentsEdit

  • On October 19, 1959, a Boeing 707-227 crashed northeast of Arlington, Washington while on a training flight for Braniff International Airways. Four people were killed in the crash, and four survived.[29]
  • On February 15, 1961, Sabena Flight 548, 707-320, crashed while on approach to Brussels Airport, Belgium. A total of 73 people were killed, including the United States Figure Skating team.[30]
  • On March 1, 1962, American Airlines Flight 1, a 707-123B, crashed into Jamaica Bay after taking off from Idlewild Airport (now JFK Airport) while heading for Los Angeles International Airport. All 95 people on board died.
  • On May 22, 1962, Continental Airlines Flight 11, 707-124, was destroyed by a bomb while en route from Chicago, Illinois, to Kansas City, Missouri. Everyone on board was killed.
  • On June 3, 1962, Air France Flight 007, a 707-300, crashed while attempting to takeoff from Paris's Orly Airport. The crash killed 130 people aboard; two stewardesses survived. It was, at the time, the worst single-plane disaster.
  • On June 22, 1962, Air France Flight 117, a 707, crashed into a hill while attempting to land at Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe in the eastern Caribbean Sea. All 113 aboard were killed in the crash.
  • On November 27, 1962, a Varig Flight 810, 707-441 registration PP-VJB, flying from Rio de Janeiro-Galeão to Lima after initiating an overshoot procedure at the suggestion of the control tower because it was too high, proceeded to start another approach when it crashed into La Cruz peak, 8 miles away from Lima Airport. Possibly there was a misinterpretation of navigation instruments. All 97 passengers and crew aboard died.[31]
  • On December 8, 1963, Pan Am Flight 214, a 707-121, crashed outside Elkton, Maryland during a severe electrical storm, with a loss of all 81 passengers and crew. The Boeing 707-121, registered as N709PA, was on the final leg of a San Juan–Baltimore–Philadelphia flight.
  • On September 17, 1965, Pan Am Flight 292, 707-120B, crashed into the side of a mountain in a storm on the island of Montserrat killing all 30 passengers and crew on board.[32]
  • On January 24, 1966, Air India Flight 101, a 707-437, crashed into Glacier des Bossons on the SW face of Mont Blanc in the French Alps. All 106 passengers and 11 crew were killed.
  • On March 6, 1966, BOAC Flight 911, a 707-436 en route from Tokyo to Hong Kong, encountered clear air turbulence close to Mount Fuji; the sudden violent gusting caused the vertical stabilizer to detach from the aircraft, following which the aircraft entered an uncontrolled dive. The 707 progressively broke up as a result of aerodynamic over-stressing of the airframe, then struck the ground near the foot of the mountain. All those on board died.
  • On April 8, 1968, BOAC Flight 712, a 707-465, suffered engine failure on takeoff from London Heathrow Airport followed by an engine fire. The plane made an emergency landing back at the airport, but an explosion in the port wing caused the plane to catch fire. Four passengers and a flight attendant were killed and 122 escaped.
  • On April 20, 1968, South African Airways Flight 228, a 707, crashed shortly after takeoff from Windhoek, Namibia.[33] The crew used a flap retraction sequence from the 707-B series on newly-delivered 707-C, which retracted the flaps in larger increments for that stage of the flight, leading to a loss of lift at Template:Convert above ground level. The inquiry blamed the crew for not observing their flight instruments when they had no visual reference.
  • On December, 12 1968, Pan Am Flight 217, a 707, en route to Caracas, Venezuela, crashed into the Caribbean Sea. All 51 passengers and crew on board died. City lights may have caused an optical illusion that affected the pilots.[34]
  • On January 22, 1973, a Kano Nigeria Air 707-3D3C crashed while attempting to land at Kano International Airport in Nigeria. 176 of the 202 passengers and crew on board were killed.
  • On June 9, 1973, a Varig cargo 707-327C registration PP-VJL flying from Campinas-Viracopos to Rio de Janeiro-Galeão while making an instrument approach to Rio de Janeiro-Galeão had technical problems with the spoilers which eventually caused the aircraft to pitch down, descended fast, struck approach lights and ditch. All 6 occupants died.[35]
  • On July 11, 1973, Varig Flight 820, 707 registered PP-VJZ, on scheduled airline service from Galeão Airport, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to Orly Airport, Paris, France made an emergency landing in a field in the Orly community due to smoke in the cabin. The fire, smoke and crash resulted in 123 deaths, with 11 survivors (10 crew, one passenger).[36]
  • On December 4, 1969, Air France Flight 212, crashed shortly after takeoff at Caracas, Venezuela. All 62 people on board were killed.
  • On July 22, 1973, Pan Am Flight 816, a 707-321C, crashed shortly after takeoff at Papeete, Tahiti resulting in 78 deaths.
  • On November 3, 1973, Pan Am Flight 160, a 707-321C, crashed on approach to Boston-Logan. Smoke in the cockpit caused the pilots to lose control. Three people were killed in the hull-loss accident.[37]
  • On April 22, 1974, Pan Am Flight 812, a 707-321B, crashed into a mountain while preparing for landing after a 4 hour 20 minutes flight from Hong Kong to Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. All 107 people on board were killed.[38]
  • On August 3, 1975, a chartered 707-321C crashed into a mountain while preparing to land at Agadir-Inezgane Airport. All 188 passengers and crew on board were killed. The 1975 Agadir Morocco Air Disaster has the highest death toll of any crash involving a 707.[39]
  • On May 14, 1977, Dan-Air 707 registered G-BEBP was on approach to land at Lusaka International Airport, Zambia. The right horizontal stabilizer and elevator separated from the fuselage in flight and the aircraft crashed 3.6 km short of the runway, killing all 6 occupants.[40]
  • On April 20, 1978, Korean Air Lines Flight 902, a 707, was hit by a missile fired from a Soviet Sukhoi Su-15 interceptor after it had entered Soviet airspace. This caused a rapid decompression of the fuselage which killed two passengers. The 707 made an emergency landing on a frozen lake near Murmansk, USSR.
  • On January 30, 1979, a Varig cargo 707-323C, registration PP-VLU crashed while flying from Tokyo to Rio de Janeiro. Causes are unknown since the wreck was never found.[41]
  • On July 26, 1979: a Lufthansa cargo 707-330C registration D-ABUY operating flight 527 from Rio de Janeiro to Frankfurt via Dakar collided with a mountain 5 minutes after take-off from Galeão. The crew of 3 died.[42]
  • On October 13, 1983, a Bolivian cargo 707 crashed in Santa Cruz, Bolivia killing 91 (of whom 88 were killed on the ground when the aircraft crashed into a practice football game).[43]
  • On January 3, 1987, Varig Flight 797, a 707-379C, crashed when making a return to Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire after one of its engines failed. One person survived out of the 51 people onboard.[44]
  • On November 29, 1987, Korean Air Flight 858, a 707-3B5C, exploded over the Andaman Sea, in the Indian Ocean in a terrorist attack with a bomb placed by North Korean agents. All 115 people on board died.
  • On February 8, 1989, Independent Air Flight 1851, a Boeing 707, crashed into a hill on approach to Santa Maria, Azores. All 144 people on board were killed. Wreckage remains at the site to this day.
  • On 21 March 1989, Transbrasil Flight 801, a cargo 707-349C registration PT-TCS, flying from Manaus to São Paulo-Guarulhos crashed at the district of Vila Barros in Guarulhos, shortly before touch-down at runway 09R. That day, at 12:00 the runway was going to be closed for maintenance and the crew decided to speed up procedures to touch-down before closure (it was already 11:54). In a hurry, one of the crew members, by mistake, activated the air-dynamic brakes and the aircraft lost too much speed to have enough aerodynamic support (Stall). As a consequence the aircraft crashed at approximately 2 km from the airport. There were 25 fatalities which of these three were crew members and 22 were civilians on the accident site. As well as the 22 fatalities, there were also over 100 injured on the ground.[45]
  • On January 25, 1990, Avianca Flight 52, a 707-321B, crashed after running out of fuel in Long Island, New York. The 707 was delayed numerous times because of heavy fog in New York. A total of 73 people died.
  • On October 29, 1991, a 707 of the Royal Australian Air Force stalled and crashed into the sea off East Sale, Victoria. All five crew on board died.[46]
  • On October 23, 1996, a 707 belonging to the Argentinian Air Force crashed on takeoff roll after failing to achieve required takeoff speed (V2) at Buenos Aires International Airport (EZE).[47]
  • On September 21, 2000, the 707 belonging to the Government of Togo coming from Valencia Airport, Spain en route to Lomé-Tokoin Airport, Togo, experienced a cockpit fire approximately 200 km/125 miles from Niamey, Niger, and crash landed at Hamani Diori Airport, Niger. None of the 10 people aboard were killed but the aircraft was destroyed by subsequent fire.[48]
  • On July 4, 2002, a 707-123B on a Gomair flight from N'Djamena Airport, Chad to Brazzaville-Maya Maya Airport, Rep. of Congo carrying a mixed load of cargo and passengers crashed. It experienced technical problems and diverted to Bangui, Central African Republic. On landing approach it descended too quickly and made ground-contact in a suburb. It subsequently bounced and broke up. Of the 30 people on board, 28 died in the accident.[49]
  • On October 23, 2004, a BETA Cargo 707 on a cargo flight from Manaus-Eduardo Gomes International Airport, Brazil to São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, Brazil aborted takeoff from Manaus due to a "loud noise". The aircraft afterwards started tilting to the right. It appeared the landing gear ruptured the right wing. The 37-year old aircraft (registration PP-BSE) was written-off.[50][51]
  • On March 19, 2005, a Cargo Plus Aviation-owned 707-300 freighter on a wet-lease to Ethiopian Airlines crashed into Lake Victoria on approach to Runway 35 at Entebbe, Uganda on the lake's northern shore. The 31-year-old 707 freighter was on approach to Runway 35 during its second attempt to land. Its right wing clipped an outcrop on approach and it began to break up. The accident happened in heavy rain. The aircraft broke up, but the crew of five survived.[52]
  • On 20 April 2005, Saha Air Lines Flight 171, a 707-3J9C, registration EP-SHE, flying from Kish Island, crashed on landing at Mehrabad Airport, Tehran following an unstabilized approach with a higher than recommended airspeed. Gear and/or a tyre failed after touchdown and the flight overran the far end of the runway. Of the 12 crew and 157 passengers, three passengers were killed, reportedly falling into the river after evacuation.[53]
  • On 21 October 2009, Azza Transport Flight 2241, a 707-320, crashed shortly after takeoff from Sharjah International Airport, United Arab Emirates. The flight was carrying cargo only and all six crew members were killed.[54][55]
  • On 18 May 2011, a Boeing 707 tanker operated by Omega Aerial Refueling Services crashed on take-off from Naval Air Station Point Mugu, California, United States and was burnt out. All three crew survived.[56]

Aircraft on displayEdit

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File:Boeing 707 Qantas (VH-XBA).jpg
File:SAAF Boeing 707 Tanker.jpg
  • VH-XBA Model 707-138B (No. 29) one of the first 707s exported, and the first civilian jet registered in Australia (to airline Qantas in 1959), is on display at the Qantas Founders Outback Museum in Longreach, Queensland, Australia.
  • 4X-BYD Model 707-131(F), (No. 34) ex-Israel Air Force and TWA aircraft is on display at the Israeli Air Force Museum near Hatzerim, Israel.
  • 4X-JYW Model 707-328 (msn. 173617, no. 110)) Former Air France (F-BHSE) aircraft sold to the Israel Air Force, aircraft on display at the Israel Air Force Museum, Beersheba - Hatzerim (LLHB).
  • D-AFHG Model 707-430 (msn. 17720, no. 115) Former Lufthansa airliner on display at Hamburg Airport (HAM/EDDH).Template:Cn
  • N130KR Model 707-458 (msn. 18071, no. 216) Former El Al (4X-ATB) aircraft restored in 1960s Lufthansa markings with fictitious registration D-ABOC at Berlin - Tegel (TXL/EDDT).Template:Cn
  • CC-CCG Model 707-330B (msn. 18642, no. 233) This ex-Lufthansa and LAN Chile is undergoing restoration at Santiago - Los Cerillos, Chile (ULC/SCTI) and will be repainted in the Chilean airline's 1960s scheme.Template:Cn
  • F-BLCD Model 707-328B (no. 471) is on display at the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace, Paris, France.Template:Cn
  • EP-IRJ Model 707-321B (msn. 18958, no. 475) Former Iran Air aircraft originally delivered to Pan American as N416PA is currently the Air Restaurant at Mehrabad Airport, Tehran.Template:Cn
  • A20-627 Model 707-338C (msn. 19627, no. 707) Flew with the RAAF. Originally delivered to Qantas as VH-EAG. Forward fuselage preserved at the RAAF Museum, Point Cook, VIC, Australia.
  • 1419 Model 707-328C (no. 763) ex-SAAF aircraft is on display at the South African Air Force Museum - Swartkop Air Force Base, Pretoria.
  • 1419 - 83-8033 Model 707-328C (msn. 19917, no. 763) of the South African Air Force. Originally delivered to Air France as F-BLCL. Complete airframe preserved at the SAAF Museum, Swartkop, South Africa.Template:Cn
  • N893PA Model 707-321B (msn. 20030, no. 791) Former CAAC aircraft originally delivered to Pan American is preserved at Tianjin, China.Template:Cn
  • HZ-HM2 Model 707-386C (msn. 21081, no. 903) Saudi Air Force VIP aircraft painted in the current Saudia color scheme. Del. 1975, reg. HZ-HM1. Entire aircraft preserved at Saudi Air Force Museum, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Template:Cn

Template:For

SpecificationsEdit

720 (707-020) 707-120B 707-320B
Cockpit crew Three
Passengers 140 110 (2 class)
179 (1 class)
147 (2 class)
202 (1 class)
Length 136 ft 2 in (41.25 m) 145 ft 1 in (44.07 m) 152 ft 11 in (46.61 m)
Wingspan 130 ft 10 in (39.90 m) 145 ft 9 in (44.42 m)
Tail height 41 ft 7 in (12.65 m) 42 ft 5 in (12.93 m)
Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) 222,000 lb (100,800 kg) 257,000 lb (116,570 kg) 333,600 lb (151,320 kg)
Empty weight 103,145 lb (46,785 kg) 122,533 lb (55,580 kg) 146,400 lb (66,406 kg)
Runway needed at MTOW 8,300 ft (2,515 m)11,000 ft (3,330 m) 10,840 ft (3,280 m)
Fuel capacity 16,060 US gal (60,900 l) 17,330 US gal (65,590 l) 23,820 US gal (90,160 l)
Landing run 5,750 ft (1,740 m)6,200 ft (1,875 m) 5,950 ft (1,813 m)
Operating range (maximum payload) 3,680 nmi (6,820 km) 3,735 nmi (6,920 km)
Range at MTOW (maximum fuel) 3800 nmi (7,040 km) 4,700 nmi (8,704 km) 5,750 nmi (10,650 km)
Cruising speed 540 kn (1000 km/h) 525 kn (972 km/h)
Fuselage width 12 ft 4 in (3.76 m)
Powerplants (4 x) Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7:
12,000 lbf (53.3 kN)
Pratt & Whitney JT3D-1:
17,000 lbf (75.6 kN)
PW JT3D-3:
18,000 lbf (80 kN)
PW JT3D-7:
19,000 lbf (84.4 kN)

Sources:[22][57][58]

Notable appearances in mediaEdit

The 707 is mentioned in the songs "Boeing Boeing 707" by Roger Miller; "Jet Airliner" performed by the Steve Miller Band and written by Paul Pena; and "Early Morning Rain", written by Gordon Lightfoot and popularized by artists such as Elvis Presley, Bob Dylan, and Peter, Paul and Mary.

The aircraft has had major roles in the Airport and Airplane films, and has been alluded to in both television and theatrical movies. In 2011, the American television series "Pan Am" takes place in the early and mid-1960s and features interior sets and exterior CGI representations of the 707 on the ground and in flight; it was Pan Am's frontline airliner during that time. Additional footage of John Travolta's Boeing 707 in Pan Am livery has also been used in the TV series.[59]

See alsoEdit

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ReferencesEdit

Notes
  1. Wilson, p. 13. "The Boeing 707, the airliner which introduced jet travel on a large scale."
  2. Wilson 1999, p. 48. Quote: "The USA's first jetliner, the 707 was at the forefront of jet travel revolution..."
  3. Template:Cite web
  4. Template:Harvnb
  5. "Gamble in the Sky." Time, July 19, 1954. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  6. Francillon 1999, p. 34
  7. Template:Harvnb
  8. Template:Harvnb
  9. Template:Harvnb
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 "Boeing 707." airlinercafe.com. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  11. Template:ASN accident
  12. Johnston, A.M., Tex Johnston: Jet-Age Test Pilot, Smithsonian Books, December 2000, p. 247. ISBN 978-1560989318.
  13. "Boeing's Jet Stratoliner." Popular Science, July 1954, p. 24.
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Boeing 707."Template:Dead link Flug Revue, May 12, 2002. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  15. Template:Harvnb
  16. "Jets Across the U.S." Time, November 17, 1958. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  17. Finlan, Alastair. The Royal Navy in the Falklands Conflict and the Gulf War: Culture and Strategy (British Politics and Society). London: Rutelage, 2004. ISBN 978-0-7146-8569-4.
  18. "Farewell Flight." Time, November 14, 1983. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  19. Federal Aviation Administration issued Supplemental Type Certificate SA2699NM to SHANNON engineering March 6, 1985.
  20. "Boeing 707." Goleta Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  21. Template:Harvnb
  22. 22.0 22.1 "707 Airplane Characteristics: Airport Planning." The Boeing Company, December, 1968. Retrieved: April 15, 2010.
  23. "KC-135E." Global Security. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  24. "www.aerotransport.org". www.aerotransport.org, March 2nd, 2011.
  25. "N707JT". FAA Registry. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  26. Template:Cite web
  27. "Boeing 707 Accident summary." Aviation-Safety.net, May 5, 2007. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  28. "Boeing 707 Accident Statistics." Aviation-Safety.net, July 5, 2005. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  29. "Civil Aeronautics Board Aircraft Accident Report 2-1754." US Department of Transportation. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  30. "Sabena Flight 548 accident summary." Aviation-Safety.net. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  31. Template:Cite web
  32. "Pan Am flight 292." Aviation-Safety.net.
  33. "South African Airways." Aviation-Safety.net.
  34. "Pan Am Accidents: 1950:1969." panamair.org.
  35. Template:Cite web
  36. Template:Cite web
  37. "Pan Am Flight 160." Aviation-Safety.net. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  38. "Pan Am Flight 812." Aviation-Safety.net. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  39. "Boeing 707-321C JY-AEE." Aviation-Safety.net. Retrieved: February 26, 2010.
  40. "Boeing 707-321C G-BEBP" Retrieved 2011-09-13
  41. "Varig cargo 707-323C." Aviation-Safety.net. Retrieved: October 16, 2009.
  42. Template:Cite web
  43. "707 crashed in Santa Cruz, Bolivia." bbc.co.uk. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  44. "Varig Flight 797." Aviation-Safety.net. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  45. Template:Cite web
  46. "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 707-368C A20-103 East Sale, VIC, Australia." aviation-safety.net. Retrieved: September 28, 2010.
  47. "Argentinian Air Force crash info." Aviation-Safety.net. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  48. "Incident report of Togo Government aircraft loss." Aviation-Safety.net. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  49. "Bangui incident." Aviation-Safety.net. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  50. "BETA Cargo." Aviation-Safety.net.
  51. "10/23/2004 incident 707 body information." Aviation-Safety.net. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  52. Wakabi, Michael. "Cargo 707 clipped rocks before crashing into lake." Flight Global, March 29, 2005. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  53. "Saha Air Flight 171 crash report." Aviation-Safety.net. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  54. Bladd, Joanne. "Six dead as cargo plane crashes at Sharjah Airport." Arabian Business, October 21, 2009. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  55. Jadallah, Ahmed and Inal Ersan. "UAE crashed cargo plane owned by Sudan's Azza Air." Reuters, October 21, 2009. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  56. Template:Cite web
  57. "Boeing 707 Family." Boeing. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  58. "Boeing 720." Boeing. Retrieved: December 27, 2009.
  59. Template:Cite web
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  • Template:Cite book
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  • Whittle, John A. The Boeing 707 and 720. Tonbridge, Kent: Air Britain (Historians), 1972. ISBN 0-8513-0025-1.
  • Template:Cite book
  • Template:Cite book
  • Winchester, Jim. Boeing 707. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife, 2002. ISBN 1-84037311-3.

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External linksEdit

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