The four-engine 747 uses a double deck configuration for part of its length. It is available in passenger, freighter and other versions. Boeing designed the 747's hump-like upper deck to serve as a first class lounge or (as is the general rule today) extra seating, and to allow the aircraft to be easily converted to a cargo carrier by removing seats and installing a front cargo door. Boeing did so because the company expected supersonic airliners (whose development was announced in the early 1960s) to render the 747 and other subsonic airliners obsolete, while believing that the demand for subsonic cargo aircraft would be robust into the future. The 747 in particular was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold, but it exceeded its critics' expectations with production passing the 1,000 mark in 1993. By December 2011, 1,427 aircraft had been built, with 97 of the 747-8 variants remaining on order.
The 747-400, the most common passenger version in service, is among the fastest airliners in service with a high-subsonic cruise speed of Mach 0.85–0.855 (up to 570mph/805km/h. It has an intercontinental range of 7,260 nautical miles (8,350 mi or 13,450 km). The 747-400 passenger version can accommodate 416 passengers in a typical three-class layout, 524 passengers in a typical two-class layout, or 660 passengers in a high density one-class configuration. The newest version of the aircraft, the 747-8, is in production and received certification in 2011. Deliveries of the 747-8F freighter version to the launch customer Cargolux began in October 2011; the 747-8I passenger version is to follow in 2012. The 747 is to be replaced by the Boeing Y3 (part of the Boeing Yellowstone Project) in the future. Template:TOC limit
In 1963, the United States Air Force started a series of study projects on a very large strategic transport aircraft. Although the C-141 Starlifter was being introduced, they felt that a much larger and more capable aircraft was needed, especially the capability to carry outsized cargo that would not fit in any existing aircraft. These studies led to initial requirements for the CX-Heavy Logistics System (CX-HLS) in March 1964 for an aircraft with a load capacity of 180000lb (81'600kg) and a speed of Mach 0.75 (500mph or 805km/h), and an unrefueled range of 5000nmi (9'260km) with a payload of 115000lb (9'260kg). The payload bay had to be 17ft (5.18m) wide by 13.5ft (4.11m) high and 100ft (30.5m) long with access through doors at the front and rear.
Featuring only four engines, the design also required new engine designs with greatly increased power and better fuel economy. On May 18, 1964, airframe proposals arrived from Boeing, Douglas, General Dynamics, Lockheed and Martin Marietta; while engine proposals were submitted by General Electric, Curtiss-Wright, and Pratt & Whitney. After a downselect, Boeing, Douglas and Lockheed were given additional study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric and Pratt & Whitney for the engines.
All three of the airframe proposals shared a number of features. As the CX-HLS needed to be able to be loaded from the front, a door had to be included where the cockpit usually was. All of the companies solved this problem by moving the cockpit to above the cargo area; Douglas had a small "pod" just forward and above the wing, Lockheed used a long "spine" running the length of the aircraft with the wing spar passing through it, while Boeing blended the two, with a longer pod that ran from just behind the nose to just behind the wing. In 1965 Lockheed's aircraft design and General Electric's engine design were selected for the new C-5 Galaxy transport, which was the largest military aircraft in the world at the time. The nose door and raised cockpit concepts would be carried over to the design of the 747.
The 747 was conceived while air travel was increasing in the 1960s. The era of commercial jet transportation, led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, had revolutionized long-distance travel. Even before it lost the CX-HLS contract, Boeing was pressed by Juan Trippe, president of Pan American World Airways (Pan Am), one of its most important airline customers, to build a passenger aircraft more than twice the size of the 707. During this time, airport congestion, worsened by increasing numbers of passengers carried on relatively small aircraft, became a problem that Trippe thought could be addressed by a large new aircraft.
In 1965, Joe Sutter was transferred from Boeing's 737 development team to manage the studies for a new airliner, already assigned the model number 747. Sutter initiated a design study with Pan Am and other airlines, in order to better understand their requirements. At the time, it was widely thought that the 747 would eventually be superseded by supersonic transport aircraft. Boeing responded by designing the 747 so that it could be adapted easily to carry freight and remain in production even if sales of the passenger version declined. In the freighter role, the clear need was to support the containerized shipping methodologies that were being widely introduced at about the same time. Standard containers are 8ft (2.4m) square at the front (slightly higher due to attachment points) and available in 20 and 40ft (6.1 and 12m) lengths. This meant that it would be possible to support a 2-wide 2-high stack of containers two or three ranks deep with a fuselage size similar to the earlier CX-HLS project.
In April 1966, Pan Am ordered 25 747-100 aircraft for US$525 million. During the ceremonial 747 contract-signing banquet in Seattle on Boeing's 50th Anniversary, Juan Trippe predicted that the 747 would be "... a great weapon for peace, competing with intercontinental missiles for mankind's destiny", according to Malcolm T. Stamper, one of the senior management for the 747 program at the time. As launch customer, and because of its early involvement before placing a formal order, Pan Am was able to influence the design and development of the 747 to an extent unmatched by a single airline before or since.
Ultimately, the high-winged CX-HLS Boeing design was not used for the 747, although technologies developed for their bid had an influence. The original design included a full-length double-deck fuselage with rows of eight-across seating and two aisles on the lower deck and seven-across seating and two aisles on the upper deck. However, concern over evacuation routes and limited cargo-carrying capability caused this idea to be scrapped in early 1966 in favor of a wider single deck design. The cockpit was, therefore, placed on a shortened upper deck so that a freight-loading door could be included in the nose cone; this design feature produced the 747's distinctive "bulge". In early models it was not clear what to do with the small space in the pod behind the cockpit, and this was initially specified as a "lounge" area with no permanent seating.
One of the principal technologies that enabled an aircraft as large as the 747 to be conceived was the high-bypass turbofan engine. The engine technology was thought to be capable of delivering double the power of the earlier turbojets while consuming a third less fuel. General Electric had pioneered the concept but was committed to developing the engine for the C-5 Galaxy and did not enter the commercial market until later. Pratt & Whitney was also working on the same principle and, by late 1966, Boeing, Pan Am and Pratt & Whitney agreed to develop a new engine, designated the JT9D to power the 747.
The project was designed with a new methodology called fault tree analysis, which allowed the effects of a failure of a single part to be studied to determine its impact on other systems. To address concerns about safety and flyability, the 747's design included structural redundancy, redundant hydraulic systems, quadruple main landing gear and dual control surfaces. Additionally, some of the most advanced high-lift devices used in the industry were included in the new design, in order to allow it to operate from existing airports. These included leading edge flaps running almost the entire length of the wing, as well as complex three-part slotted flaps along the rear. The wing's complex three-part flaps increase wing area by 21 percent and lift by 90 percent when fully deployed compared to their non-deployed configuration.
Boeing agreed to deliver the first 747 to Pan Am by the end of 1969. The delivery date left 28 months to design the aircraft, which was two-thirds of the normal time. The schedule was so fast paced that the people who worked on it were given the nickname "The Incredibles". Developing the aircraft was such a technical and financial challenge that management was said to have "bet the company" when it started the project.
As Boeing did not have a plant large enough to assemble the giant airliner, they chose to build a new plant. The company considered locations in about 50 cities, and eventually decided to build the new plant some 30miles (48km) north of Seattle on a site adjoining a military base at Paine Field near Everett, Washington. It bought the 780acre (3.2km2) site in June 1966.
Developing the 747 had been a major challenge, and building its assembly plant was also a huge undertaking. Boeing president William M. Allen asked Malcolm T. Stamper, then head of the company's turbine division, to oversee construction of the Everett factory and to start production of the 747. To level the site, more than 4 million cubic yards (3.1 million m³) of earth had to be moved. Time was so short that the 747's full-scale mock-up was built before the factory roof above it was finished. The plant is the largest building by volume ever built, and has been substantially expanded several times to permit construction of other models of Boeing wide-body commercial jets.
Development and testingEdit
Before the first 747 was fully assembled, testing began on many components and systems. One important test involved the evacuation of 560 volunteers from a cabin mock-up via the aircraft's emergency chutes. The first full-scale evacuation took two and a half minutes instead of the maximum of 90 seconds mandated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and several volunteers were injured. Subsequent test evacuations achieved the 90-second goal but caused more injuries. Most problematic was evacuation from the aircraft's upper deck; instead of using a conventional slide, volunteer passengers escaped by using a harness attached to a reel. Tests also involved taxiing such a large aircraft. Boeing built an unusual training device known as "Waddell's Wagon" (named for a 747 test pilot, Jack Waddell) that consisted of a mock-up cockpit mounted on the roof of a truck. While the first 747s were still being built, the device allowed pilots to practice taxi maneuvers from a high upper-deck position.
On September 30, 1968, the first 747 was rolled out of the Everett assembly building before the world's press and representatives of the 26 airlines that had ordered the airliner. Over the following months, preparations were made for the first flight, which took place on February 9, 1969, with test pilots Jack Waddell and Brien Wygle at the controls and Jess Wallick at the flight engineer's station. Despite a minor problem with one of the flaps, the flight confirmed that the 747 handled extremely well. The 747 was found to be largely immune to "Dutch roll", a phenomenon that had been a major hazard to the early swept-wing jets.
During later stages of the flight test program, flutter testing showed that the wings suffered oscillation under certain conditions. This difficulty was partly solved by reducing the stiffness of some wing components. However, a particularly severe high-speed flutter problem was solved only by inserting depleted uranium counterweights as ballast in the outboard engine nacelles of the early 747s. This measure caused anxiety when these aircraft crashed, as did China Airlines Flight 358 at Wanli in 1991 and El Al Flight 1862 at Amsterdam in 1992.
The flight test program was hampered by problems with the 747's JT9D engines. Difficulties included engine stalls caused by rapid movements of the throttles and distortion of the turbine casings after a short period of service. The problems delayed 747 deliveries for several months and stranded up to 20 aircraft at the Everett plant while they awaited engine installation. The program was further delayed when one of the five test aircraft suffered serious damage during a landing attempt at Renton Municipal Airport, site of the company's Renton factory. On December 13, 1969 the test aircraft was being taken to have its test equipment removed and a cabin installed when pilot Ralph C. Cokely undershot the airport's short runway. The 747's right, outer landing gear was torn off and two engine nacelles were damaged. However, these difficulties did not prevent Boeing from taking one of the test aircraft to the 28th Paris Air Show in mid-1969, where it was displayed to the general public for the first time. The 747 achieved its FAA airworthiness certificate in December 1969, making it ready for introduction into service.
The huge cost of developing the 747 and building the Everett factory meant that Boeing had to borrow heavily from a banking syndicate. During the final months before delivery of the first aircraft, the company had to repeatedly request additional funding to complete the project. Had this been refused, Boeing's survival would have been threatened. Ultimately, the gamble succeeded, and Boeing held a monopoly in very large passenger aircraft production for many years.
Entry into serviceEdit
On January 15, 1970, First Lady of the United States Pat Nixon christened Pan Am's first 747, Clipper Victor, at Dulles International Airport (later renamed Washington Dulles International Airport) in the presence of Pan Am chairman Najeeb Halaby. Instead of champagne, red, white and blue water was sprayed on the aircraft. The 747 entered service on January 22, 1970, on Pan Am's New York–London route; the flight had been planned for the evening of January 21, but engine overheating made the original aircraft unusable. Finding a substitute delayed the flight by more than six hours to the following day.
The 747 enjoyed a fairly smooth introduction into service, overcoming concerns that some airports would not be able to accommodate an aircraft that large. Although technical problems occurred, they were relatively minor and quickly solved. After the aircraft's introduction with Pan Am, other airlines that had bought the 747 in order to stay competitive began to put their own 747s into service. Boeing estimated that half of the early 747 sales were to airlines desiring the aircraft's long range rather than its payload capacity. While the 747 had the lowest potential operating cost per seat, this could only be achieved when the aircraft was fully loaded; costs per seat increased rapidly as occupancy declined. A moderately loaded 747, one with only 70 percent of its seats occupied, used more than 95 percent of the fuel needed by a fully occupied 747.
When economic problems in the United States and other countries after the 1973 oil crisis led to reduced passenger traffic, several airlines found they did not have enough passengers to fly the 747 economically, and they replaced them with the smaller and recently introduced McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar trijet wide bodies (and later the 767 and A300 twinjets). Having tried replacing coach seats on its 747s with piano bars in an attempt to attract more customers, American Airlines eventually relegated its 747s to cargo service and in 1983 exchanged them with Pan Am for smaller aircraft; Delta Air Lines also removed its 747s from service after several years. Delta would later merge with Northwest Airlines, which operates 747s.
International flights that bypassed traditional hub airports and landed at smaller cities became more common throughout the 1980s, and this eroded the 747's original market. However, many international carriers continued to use the 747 on Pacific routes. In Japan, 747s on domestic routes are configured to carry close to the maximum passenger capacity.
Improved 747 versionsEdit
After the initial 747-100 model, Boeing developed the −100B, a higher maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) variant, and the −100SR (Short Range), with higher passenger capacity. Increased maximum takeoff weight allows aircraft to carry more fuel and have longer range. The −200 model followed in 1971, featuring more powerful engines and a higher MTOW. Passenger, freighter and combination passenger-freighter versions of the −200 were produced. The shortened 747SP (special performance) with a longer range was also developed, and entered service in 1976.
The 747 line was further developed with the launch of the 747-300 in 1980. The −300 resulted from Boeing studies to increase the seating capacity of the 747, during which solutions such as fuselage plugs and extending the upper deck over the entire length of the fuselage were rejected. The first 747-300, completed in 1983, included a stretched upper deck, increased cruise speed, and increased seating capacity. The original designation of the −300 was 747SUD for "stretched upper deck", then 747-200 SUD, followed by 747EUD, before the 747-300 designation was used. Passenger, short range and combination freighter-passenger versions of the −300 were produced.
In 1985, development of the longer range 747-400 began. The variant had a new glass cockpit, which allowed for a cockpit crew of two instead of three, new engines, lighter construction materials, and a redesigned interior. Development cost soared, and production delays occurred as new technologies were incorporated at the request of airlines. Insufficient workforce experience and reliance on overtime contributed to early production problems on the 747-400. The −400 entered service in 1989.
In 1991, a record-breaking 1,087 passengers were airlifted aboard a 747 to Israel as part of Operation Solomon. The 747 remained the heaviest commercial aircraft in regular service until the debut of the Antonov An-124 Ruslan in 1982; variants of the 747-400 would surpass the An-124's weight in 2000. The Antonov An-225 cargo transport, which debuted in 1988, remains the world's largest aircraft by several measures (including the most accepted measures of maximum takeoff weight and length); one aircraft has been completed and is in service as of 2010 onwards. The Hughes H-4 Hercules is the largest aircraft by wingspan, but it only completed a single flight.
Since the arrival of the 747-400, several stretching schemes for the 747 have been proposed. Boeing announced the larger 747-500X and -600X preliminary designs in 1996. The new variants would have cost more than US$5 billion to develop, and interest was not sufficient to launch the program. In 2000, Boeing offered the more modest 747X and 747X stretch derivatives as alternatives to the Airbus A3XX. However, the 747X family was unable to attract enough interest to enter production. A year later, Boeing switched from the 747X studies to pursue the Sonic Cruiser, and after the Sonic Cruiser program was put on hold, the 787 Dreamliner. Some of the ideas developed for the 747X were used on the 747-400ER, a longer range variant of the 747-400.
After several variants were proposed but later abandoned, some industry observers became skeptical of new aircraft proposals from Boeing. However, in early 2004, Boeing announced tentative plans for the 747 Advanced that were eventually adopted. Similar in nature to the 747-X, the stretched 747 Advanced used technology from the 787 to modernize the design and its systems. The 747 remained the largest passenger airliner in service until the Airbus A380 began airline service in 2007.
On November 14, 2005, Boeing announced it was launching the 747 Advanced as the Boeing 747-8. The last 747-400s were completed in 2009. Template:As of, most orders of the 747-8 have been for the freighter variant. On February 8, 2010, the 747-8 Freighter made its maiden flight. The first scheduled delivery of the 747-8 went to Cargolux in 2011. Eventually, the 747 may be replaced in Boeing's lineup by a new design named "Y3".
The Boeing 747 is a large, wide-body (two-aisle) airliner with four wing-mounted engines. The wings have a high sweep angle of 37.5 degrees for a fast, efficient cruise of Mach 0.84 to 0.88, depending on the variant. The sweep also allows the 747 to use existing hangars. Seating capacity is more than 366 with a 3–4–3 seat arrangement (a cross section of 3 seats, an aisle, 4 seats, another aisle, and 3 seats) in economy class and a 2–3–2 arrangement in first class on the main deck. The upper deck has a 3–3 seat arrangement in economy class and a 2–2 arrangement in first class.
Raised above the main deck, the cockpit creates a hump. The raised cockpit allows front loading of cargo on freight variants. The upper deck behind the cockpit provides space for a lounge or extra seating. The "stretched upper deck" became available as an option on the 747-100B variant and later as standard on the 747-300. The 747-400 cockpit roof section also has an escape hatch from which crew can exit in the event of an emergency if they cannot exit through the cabin.
The 747's maximum takeoff weight ranges from 735,000 pounds (333,400 kg) for the −100 to 970,000 lb (439,985 kg) for the −8. Its range has increased from 5,300 nautical miles (6,100 mi, 9,800 km) on the −100 to 8,000 nmi (9,200 mi, 14,815 km) on the −8I.
The 747 has multiple structural redundancy including four redundant hydraulic systems and four main landing gears with four wheels each, which provide a good spread of support on the ground and safety in case of tire blow-outs. The redundant main gear allows for landing on two opposing landing gears if the others do not function properly. In addition, the 747 has split control surfaces and was designed with sophisticated triple-slotted flaps that minimize landing speeds and allow the 747 to use standard-length runways. For transportation of spare engines, 747s can accommodate a non-functioning fifth-pod engine under the port wing of the aircraft between the inner functioning engine and the fuselage.
The 747-100 was the original variant launched in 1966. The 747-200 soon followed, with its launch in 1968. The 747-300 was launched in 1980 and was followed by the 747-400 in 1985. Ultimately, the 747-8 was announced in 2005. Several versions of each variant have been produced, and many of the early variants were in production simultaneously. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) classifies variants using a shortened code formed by combining the model number and the variant designator (e.g. "B741" for all −100 models).
The first 747-100s were built with six upper deck windows (three per side) to accommodate upstairs lounge areas. Later, as airlines began to use the upper deck for premium passenger seating instead of lounge space, Boeing offered a ten-window upper deck as an option. Some −100s were retrofitted with the new configuration. The −100 was equipped with Pratt & Whitney JT9D-3A engines. No freighter version of this model was developed by Boeing. However, 747-100s have been converted to freighters. A total of 167 747-100s were built.
Responding to requests from Japanese airlines for a high-capacity aircraft to serve domestic routes between major cities, Boeing developed the 747SR as a short range variant of the 747-100 with lower fuel capacity and greater payload capability. With increased economy class seating, up to 498 passengers could be carried in early versions and more than 550 in later models. The 747SR had an economic design life objective of 52,000 flights during 20 years of airline operation, compared to 24,600 flights in 20 years for the standard 747. The initial 747SR model, the −100SR, had a strengthened body structure and undercarriage to accommodate the added stress accumulated from a greater number of takeoffs and landings. Extra structural support was built into the wings, fuselage, and the landing gear along with a 20 percent reduction in fuel capacity.
The initial order for the −100SR, four aircraft for Japan Air Lines (JAL, later Japan Airlines), was announced on October 30, 1972; rollout occurred on August 3, 1973, and the first flight took place on August 31, 1973. The type was certified by the FAA on September 26, 1973, with the first delivery on the same day. The −100SR entered service with JAL, the type's sole customer, on October 7, 1973, and typically operated Japanese domestic flights. Seven −100SRs were built from 1973 and 1975, each with a 520,000-pound (240,000 kg) MTOW and Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7A engines derated to 43,000 pounds-force (190,000 N) of thrust.
Following the −100SR, Boeing produced the −100BSR, a 747SR variant with increased takeoff weight capability. Debuting in 1978, the −100BSR also incorporated structural modifications for a high cycle-to-flying hour ratio; a related standard −100B model debuted in 1979. The −100BSR first flew on November 3, 1978, with first delivery to All Nippon Airways (ANA) on December 21, 1978. A total of 20 −100BSRs were produced for ANA and JAL. The −100BSR had a 600,000 lb MTOW and was powered by the same JT9D-7A engines used on the −100SR. ANA operated the type on domestic Japanese routes with 455 or 456 seats until retiring its last aircraft on March 10, 2006.
In 1986, two −100BSR SUD models, featuring the stretched upper deck (SUD) of the −300, were produced for JAL. The type's maiden flight occurred on February 26, 1986, with FAA certification and first delivery on March 24, 1986. JAL operated the −100BSR SUD with 563 seats on domestic routes until their retirement in the third quarter of 2006. While only two −100BSR SUDs were produced, in theory, standard −100Bs can be modified to the SUD certification. Overall, 29 747SRs were built, including seven −100SR, 20 −100BSR, and two −100BSR SUD models.
The 747-100B model was developed from the −100SR, utilizing its stronger airframe and undercarriage design. The type had an increased fuel capacity of 48,070 US gallons, allowing for a 5,000-nautical-mile (9,300 km; 5,800 mi) range with a typical 452-passenger payload, and an increased MTOW of 750,000 lb (340,000 kg) was offered. The first −100B order, one aircraft for Iran Air, was announced on June 1, 1978. This aircraft first flew on June 20, 1979, received FAA certification on August 1, 1979, and was delivered the next day. Nine −100Bs were built, one for Iran Air and eight for Saudia (now Saudi Arabian Airlines). Unlike the original −100, the −100B was offered with Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7A, General Electric CF6-50, or Rolls-Royce RB211-524 engines. However, only RB211-524 (Saudia) and JT9D-7A (Iran Air) engines were ordered.
The development of the 747SP stemmed from a joint request between Pan American World Airways and Iran Air, who were looking for a high-capacity airliner with enough range to cover Pan Am's New York–Middle Eastern routes and Iran Air's planned Tehran–New York route. The Tehran–New York route, when launched, was the longest non-stop commercial flight in the world. The 747SP is 48 feet 4 inches (14.73 m) shorter than the 747-100. Fuselage sections were eliminated fore and aft of the wing, and the center section of the fuselage was redesigned. The SP's flaps used a simplified single-slotted configuration. The 747SP, compared to earlier variants, had a tapering of the aft upper fuselage into the empennage, a double-hinged rudder, and longer vertical and horizontal stabilizers. Power was provided by Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7(A/F/J/FW) or Rolls-Royce RB211-524 engines.
The 747SP was granted a supplemental certificate on February 4, 1976 and entered service with launch customer Pan Am and Iran Air that same year. The aircraft was chosen by airlines wishing to serve major airports with short runways. A total of 45 747SPs were built, with the 44th 747SP delivered on August 30, 1982. In 1987, Boeing re-opened the 747SP production line after five years to build one last 747SP for an order by the United Arab Emirates government. In addition to airline use, one 747SP was modified for NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's SOFIA experiment.
While the −100 powered by Pratt & Whitney JT9D-3A engines offered enough payload and range for US domestic operations, it was marginal for long international route sectors. The demand for longer range aircraft with increased payload quickly led to the improved −200, which featured more powerful engines, increased MTOW, and greater range than the −100. A few early −200s retained the three-window configuration of the −100 on the upper deck, but most were built with a ten-window configuration on each side. The −200 was produced in passenger (−200B), freighter (−200F), convertible (−200C), and combi (−200M) versions.
The 747-200B was the basic passenger version, with increased fuel capacity and more powerful engines; it entered service in February 1971. In its first three years of production, the −200 was equipped with Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7 engines (initially the only engine available). Range with a full passenger load started at over 5,000 nmi (9,300 km) and increased to 6,000 nmi (11,000 km) with later engines. Most −200Bs had an internally stretched upper deck, allowing for up to 16 passenger seats. The freighter model, the 747-200F, could be fitted with or without a side cargo door, and had a capacity of 105 tons (95.3 tonnes) and an MTOW of up to 833,000 lb (378,000 kg). It entered service in 1972 with Lufthansa. The convertible version, the 747-200C, could be converted between a passenger and a freighter or used in mixed configurations, and featured removable seats and a nose cargo door. The −200C could also be fitted with an optional side cargo door on the main deck.
The combi model, the 747-200M, could carry freight in the rear section of the main deck via a side cargo door. A removable partition on the main deck separated the cargo area at the rear from the passengers at the front. The −200M could carry up to 238 passengers in a three-class configuration with cargo carried on the main deck. The model was also known as the 747-200 Combi. As on the −100, a stretched upper deck (SUD) modification was later offered. A total of 10 converted 747-200s were operated by KLM. Union des Transports Aériens (UTA) also had two of these aircraft converted.
After launching the −200 with Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7 engines, on August 1, 1972 Boeing announced that it had reached an agreement with General Electric to certify the 747 with CF6-50 series engines to increase the aircraft's market potential. Rolls-Royce followed 747 engine production with a launch order from British Airways for four aircraft. The option of RB211-524B engines was announced on June 17, 1975. The −200 was the first 747 to provide a choice of powerplant from the three major engine manufacturers.
A total of 393 of the 747-200 versions had been built when production ended in 1991. Of these, 225 were −200s, 73 were −200F, 13 were −200C, 78 were −200M, and 4 were military. Many 747-200s remain in operation, although most large carriers have retired them from their fleets and sold them to smaller operators. Large carriers have sped up fleet retirement following the September 11 attacks and the subsequent drop in demand for air travel, scrapping some or turning others into freighters.
The 747-300 features a 23 feet 4 inches (7.11 m) longer upper deck than the −200. The stretched upper deck has two emergency exit doors and is the most visible difference between the −300 and previous models. Before being made standard on the 747-300, the stretched upper deck was previously offered as a retrofit, and first appeared on two Japanese 747-100SR aircraft. The −300 introduced a new straight stairway to the upper deck, instead of a spiral staircase on earlier variants, which creates room above and below for more seats. Minor aerodynamic changes allowed the −300's cruise speed to reach Mach 0.85 compared with Mach 0.84 on the −200 and −100 models, while retaining the same takeoff weight. The −300 could be equipped with the same Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce powerplants as on the −200, as well as updated General Electric CF6-80C2B1 engines.
Swissair placed the first order for the 747-300 on June 11, 1980. The variant revived the 747-300 designation, which had been previously used on a design study that did not reach production. The 747-300 first flew on October 5, 1982, and the type's first delivery went to Swissair on March 23, 1983. Besides the passenger model, two other versions (−300M, −300SR) were produced. The 747-300M features cargo capacity on the rear portion of the main deck, similar to the −200M, but with the stretched upper deck it can carry more passengers. The 747-300SR, a short range, high-capacity domestic model, was produced for Japanese markets; Japan Airlines operated the type with more than 600 seats on the Okinawa–Tokyo route and elsewhere. No production freighter version of the 747-300 was built, but Boeing began modifications of used passenger −300 models into freighters in 2000.
A total of 81 aircraft of the 747-300 series were delivered, 56 for passenger use, 21 −300M and 4 −300SR versions. In 1985, just two years after the −300 entered service, the type was superseded by the announcement of the more advanced 747-400. The last 747-300 was delivered in September 1990 to Sabena. While some −300 customers continued operating the type, several large carriers replaced their 747-300s with 747-400s. Air France, Air India, Pakistan International Airlines and Qantas were some of the last major carriers to operate the 747-300. On December 29, 2008, Qantas flew its last scheduled 747-300 service, operating from Melbourne to Los Angeles via Auckland.
The 747-400 is an improved model with increased range. It has wingtip extensions of 6 ft (1.8 m) and winglets of 6 ft (1.8 m), which improve the type's fuel efficiency by four percent compared to previous 747 versions. The 747-400 introduced a new glass cockpit designed for a flight crew of two instead of three, with a reduction in the number of dials, gauges and knobs from 971 to 365 through the use of electronics. The type also features tail fuel tanks, revised engines, and a new interior. The longer range has been used by some airlines to bypass traditional fuel stops, such as Anchorage. Powerplants include the Pratt & Whitney PW4062, General Electric CF6-80C2, and Rolls-Royce RB211-524.
The −400 was offered in passenger (−400), freighter (−400F), combi (−400C), domestic (−400D), extended range passenger (−400ER), and extended range freighter (−400ERF) versions. Passenger versions retain the same upper deck as the −300, while the freighter version does not have an extended upper deck. The 747-400D was built for short range operations and does not include winglets, but can be retrofitted with them. Cruising speed is up to Mach 0.855 on different versions of the 747-400.
The passenger version first entered service in February 1989 with launch customer Northwest Airlines on the Minneapolis to Phoenix route. The combi version entered service in September 1989 with KLM, while the freighter version entered service in November 1993 with Cargolux. The 747-400ERF entered service with Air France in October 2002, while the 747-400ER entered service with Qantas, its sole customer, in November 2002. In January 2004, Boeing and Cathay Pacific launched the Boeing 747-400 Special Freighter program, later referred to as the Boeing Converted Freighter (BCF), to modify passenger 747-400s for cargo use. The first 747-400BCF was redelivered in December 2005.
In March 2007, Boeing announced that it had no plans to produce further passenger versions of the −400. However, orders for 36 −400F and −400ERF freighters were already in place at the time of the announcement. The last passenger version of the 747-400 was delivered in April 2005 to China Airlines. Some of the last built 747-400s were delivered with Dreamliner livery along with the modern Signature interior from the Boeing 777. A total of 694 of the 747-400 series aircraft were delivered. At various times, the largest operator of the 747-400 has been Singapore Airlines, Japan Airlines, or British Airways.
747 LCF DreamlifterEdit
The 747-400 Dreamlifter (originally called the 747 Large Cargo Freighter or LCF) is a Boeing-designed modification of existing 747-400s to a larger configuration to ferry 787 Dreamliner sub-assemblies. Evergreen Aviation Technologies Corporation of Taiwan was contracted to complete modifications of 747-400s into Dreamlifters in Taoyuan. The aircraft flew for the first time on September 9, 2006 in a test flight. Modification of four aircraft was completed by February 2010. The Dreamlifters have been placed into service transporting sub-assemblies for the 787 program to the Boeing plant in Everett, Washington, for final assembly. The aircraft is certified to carry only essential crew and not passengers.
Boeing announced a new 747 variant, the 747-8, on November 14, 2005. Referred to as the 747 Advanced prior to its launch, the 747-8 uses the same engine and cockpit technology as the 787, hence the use of the "8". The variant is designed to be quieter, more economical, and more environmentally friendly. The 747-8's fuselage is lengthened from 232 to 251 feet (70.8 to 76.4 m), marking the first stretch variant of the aircraft. Power is supplied by General Electric GEnx-2B67 engines.
The 747-8 Freighter, or 747-8F, is derived from the 747-400ERF. The variant has 16 percent more payload capacity than its predecessor, allowing it to carry seven additional standard air cargo containers, with a maximum payload capacity of 154 tons (140 tonnes) of cargo. As on previous 747 freighters, the 747-8F features an overhead nose-door to aid loading and unloading. The 747-8F made its maiden flight on February 8, 2010. The variant received its amended type certificate jointly from the FAA and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) on August 19, 2011. The −8F was first delivered to Cargolux on October 12, 2011.
The passenger version, named 747-8 Intercontinental or 747-8I, is designed to carry up to 467 passengers in a 3-class configuration and fly more than 8,000 nmi (15,000 km) at Mach 0.855. As a derivative of the already common 747-400, the 747-8 has the economic benefit of similar training and interchangeable parts. The type's first test flight occurred on March 20, 2011. When the 747-8 enters service, it will surpass the Airbus A340-600 as the world's longest airliner. The first −8I is to be delivered in early 2012 to Lufthansa. The 747-8 has received 106 total orders, including 70 for the −8F and 36 for the −8I, as of December 2011.
Government, military, and other variantsEdit
- C-19 – The U.S. Air Force gave this designation to the 747-100s used by some U.S. airlines and modified for use in the Civil Reserve Airlift Fleet.
- VC-25 – This aircraft is the U.S. Air Force Very Important Person (VIP) version of the 747-200B. The U.S. Air Force operates two of them in VIP configuration as the VC-25A. Tail numbers 28000 and 29000 are popularly known as Air Force One, which is technically the air-traffic call sign for any United States Air Force aircraft carrying the U.S. President. Although based on the 747-200B design, they include several innovations introduced on the 747-400. Partially completed aircraft from Everett, Washington, were flown to Wichita, Kansas, for final outfitting.
- E-4B – Formerly known as the National Emergency Airborne Command Post (referred to colloquially as "Kneecap"), this aircraft is now referred to as the National Airborne Operations Center (NAOC).
- YAL-1 – This is the experimental Airborne Laser, a component of the National Missile Defense plan.
- Shuttle Carrier Aircraft – Two 747s were modified to carry the Space Shuttle. One is a 747-100 (N905NA), and the other is a 747-100SR (N911NA). An SCA carried the Space Shuttle Enterprise in the late 1970s, and has since carried all Space Shuttles.
- A number of other governments also use the 747 as a VIP transport, including Bahrain, Brunei, India, Iran, Japan, Kuwait, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. Several new Boeing 747-8s have been ordered by Boeing Business Jet for conversion to VIP transport for several unidentified customers.
- C-33 – This aircraft was a proposed U.S. military version of the 747-400 intended to augment the C-17 fleet. The plan was canceled in favor of additional C-17 military transports.
- KC-33A – A proposed 747 was also adapted as an aerial refueling tanker and was bid against the DC-10-30 during the 1970s Advanced Cargo Transport Aircraft (ACTA) program that produced the KC-10A Extender. Before the Khomeini-led revolution, Iran bought four 747-100 aircraft with air-refueling boom conversions to support a fleet of F-4 Phantoms. It is unknown whether these aircraft remain usable as tankers. Since then, other proposals have emerged for adaptation of later 747-400 aircraft for this role.
- 747 CMCA – This variant was considered by the U.S. Air Force as a Cruise Missile Carrier Aircraft during the development of the B-1 Lancer strategic bomber. It would have been equipped with 50 to 100 AGM-86 ALCM cruise missiles on rotary launchers. This plan was abandoned in favor of more conventional strategic bombers.
- 747 AAC – Boeing also considered developing the 747 into an aerial aircraft carrier for up to 10 "microfighters". With a double-decker hangar and two launching bays, it was believed that the scheme might actually be cheaper than establishing a short-term land base. However nothing came of the scheme, or its complementary 747 AWACS version, which would have carried two of the "microfighters" for reconnaissance.
- Evergreen 747 Supertanker – A Boeing 747-200 modified as an aerial application platform for fire fighting using 20,000 US gallons (76,000 L) of firefighting chemicals.
- Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) - A former Pan Am Boeing 747SP modified to carry a large infrared-sensitive telescope, in a joint venture of NASA and DLR. High altitudes are needed for infrared astronomy, so as to rise above infrared-absorbing water vapor in the atmosphere.
Boeing has studied a number of 747 variants that have not gone beyond the concept stage.
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, Boeing studied the development of a shorter 747 with three engines, to compete with the smaller L-1011 TriStar and DC-10. The 747 trijet would have had more payload, range, and passenger capacity. The center engine would have been fitted in the tail with an S-duct intake similar to the L-1011's. However, engineering studies showed that a total redesign of the 747 wing would be necessary. Maintaining the same 747 handling characteristics would be important to minimize pilot retraining. Boeing decided instead to pursue a shortened four-engine 747, resulting in the 747SP. In the 1990s, the 777, a long-range twinjet smaller than the 747-400, entered service in the market where the 747 trijet had been targeted.
747-500X, −600X, and −700XEdit
Boeing announced the 747-500X and −600X at the 1996 Farnborough Airshow. The proposed models would have combined the 747's fuselage with a new 251 ft (77 m) span wing derived from the 777. Other changes included adding more powerful engines and increasing the number of tires from two to four on the nose landing gear and from 16 to 20 on the main landing gear.
The 747-500X concept featured an increased fuselage length of 18 ft (5.5 m) to 250 ft (76.2 m) long, and the aircraft was to carry 462 passengers over a range up to 8,700 nautical miles (10,000 mi, 16,100 km), with a gross weight of over 1.0 Mlb (450 Mg). The 747-600X concept featured a greater stretch to 279 ft (85 m) with seating for 548 passengers, a range of up to 7,700 nmi (8,900 mi, 14,300 km), and a gross weight of 1.2 Mlb (540 Mg). A third study concept, the 747-700X, would have combined the wing of the 747-600X with a widened fuselage, allowing it to carry 650 passengers over the same range as a 747-400. The cost of the changes from previous 747 models, in particular the new wing for the 747-500X and −600X, was estimated to be more than US$5 billion. Boeing was not able to attract enough interest to launch the aircraft.
747X and 747X StretchEdit
As Airbus progressed with its A3XX study, Boeing in 2000 offered the market a 747 derivative as an alternative. This was a more modest proposal than the previous −500X and −600X that would retain the 747's overall wing design and add a segment at the root, increasing the span to 229 ft (69.8 m). Power would have been supplied by either the Engine Alliance GP7172 or the Rolls-Royce Trent 600, which were also proposed for the 767-400ERX. A new flight deck based on the 777's would be used. The 747X aircraft was to carry 430 passengers over ranges of up to 8,700 nmi (10,000 mi, 16,100 km). The 747X Stretch would be extended to 263 ft (80.2 m) long, allowing it to carry 500 passengers over ranges of up to 7,800 nmi (9,000 mi, 14,500 km). Both would feature an interior based on the 777's signature architecture. Freighter versions of the 747X and 747X Stretch were also studied.
Like its predecessor, the 747X family was unable to garner enough interest to justify production, and it was shelved along with the 767-400ERX in March 2001, when Boeing announced the Sonic Cruiser concept. Though the 747X design was less costly than the 747-500X and −600X, it was criticized for not offering a sufficient advance from the existing 747-400. The 747X did not make it beyond the drawing board, but the 747-400X being developed concurrently moved into production to become the 747-400ER.
After the end of the 747X program, Boeing continued to study improvements that could be made to the 747. The 747-400XQLR (Quiet Long Range) was meant to have an increased range of 7,980 nmi (9,200 mi, 14,800 km), with improvements to boost efficiency and reduce noise. Improvements studied included raked wingtips similar to those used on the 767-400ER and a sawtooth engine nacelle for noise reduction. Although the 747-400XQLR did not move to production, many of its features were used for the 747 Advanced, which has now been launched as the 747-8.
Accidents and incidentsEdit
As of September 2010, the 747 has been involved in 124 accidents or incidents, including 49 hull-loss accidents, resulting in 2,852 fatalities. The 747 has been in 31 hijackings, which caused 25 fatalities.
Few crashes have been attributed to design flaws of the 747. The Tenerife disaster resulted from pilot error, air traffic control (ATC) error, and communications failure, while the Japan Airlines Flight 123 and China Airlines Flight 611 crashes stemmed from improper aircraft repair. United Airlines Flight 811, which suffered an explosive decompression mid-flight on February 24, 1989, led the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to issue a recommendation that 747-200 cargo doors similar to those on the Flight 811 aircraft be modified. Korean Air Lines Flight 007 was shot down by the Soviets in 1983 after it had strayed into Soviet territory, causing U.S. President Ronald Reagan to authorize the then-strictly military Global Positioning System (GPS) for civilian use. TWA Flight 800, a 747-100 that exploded in midair on July 17, 1996, led the FAA to propose a rule requiring installation of an inerting system in the center fuel tank of most large aircraft that was adopted in July 2008, after years of research into solutions. It is expected that the new safety system will cost US$100,000 to $450,000 per aircraft and weigh approximately 263 ft (80.2 m).
Aircraft on displayEdit
As increasing numbers of "classic" 747-100 and 747-200 series aircraft have been retired, some have found their way into museums or other uses. The City of Everett, the first 747 and prototype, is at the Museum of Flight, Seattle, Washington, USA where it is sometimes leased to Boeing for test purposes.
Other 747s in museums include those at the National Aviation Theme Park Aviodrome, Lelystad, Netherlands; the Qantas Founders Outback Museum, Longreach, Queensland, Australia; Rand Airport, Johannesburg, South Africa; Technikmuseum Speyer, Speyer, Germany; Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace, Paris, France; Tehran Aerospace Exhibition, Tehran, Iran; Jeongseok Aviation Center, Jeju, South Korea, Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum, McMinnville, Oregon, and the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, D.C.
Upon its retirement from service, the 747 number two in the production line was dis-assembled and shipped to Hopyeong, Namyangju, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea where it was re-assembled and converted into a restaurant. Originally flown commercially by Pan Am as N747PA, Clipper Juan T. Trippe, and repaired for service following a tailstrike, it stayed with the airline until its bankruptcy. The restaurant closed by 2009, and the aircraft was demolished in 2010. A former British Airways 747-200B, G-BDXJ, is parked at the Dunsfold Aerodrome in Surrey, England and has been used as a movie set for productions such as the 2006 James Bond film, Casino Royale. The Jumbohostel, using a converted 747-200, opened at Arlanda Airport, Stockholm on January 15, 2009.
|Typical seating capacity||452 (2-class)|
| 496 (2-class)|
| 660 (1-class)|
|Length||231 ft 10 in (70.6 m)||250 ft 2 in (76.25 m)|
|Interior cabin width||20 feet (6.1 m)|
|Wingspan||195 ft 8 in (59.6 m)||211 ft 5 in (64.4 m)||224 ft 7 in (68.5 m)|
|Wing area||5,500 ft2 (510.95 m2)||5,650 ft2 (525 m2)||5963 ft2 (554 m2)|
|Tail height||63 ft 5 in (19.3 m)||63 ft 8 in (19.4 m)||63 ft 6 in (19.4 m)|
|Operating empty weight|| 358,000 lb |
| 383,000 lb |
| 392,800 lb |
| 393,263 lb |
ER: 406,900 lb
| 472,900 lb |
|Maximum takeoff weight|| 735,000 lb |
| 833,000 lb |
| 875,000 lb |
ER: 910,000 lb
| 975,000 lb |
|Cruising speed |
(at 35,000 ft (11,000 m) altitude)
| Mach 0.84 |
(555 mph, 893 km/h, 481 knots )
| Mach 0.85 |
(567 mph, 913 km/h, 493 kn)
ER: Mach 0.855
(570 mph, 918 km/h, 495 kn)
| Mach 0.855 |
(570 mph, 918 km/h, 495 kn)
|Maximum speed|| Mach 0.89 |
(594 mph, 955 km/h, 516 kn)
|Mach 0.92 |
(614 mph, 988 km/h, 533 kn)
|Required runway at MTOW*||10,466 ft (3,190 m)||10,893 ft (3,320 m)|| 9,902 ft (3,018 m) |
ER: 10,138 ft (3,090 m)
|10,138 ft (3,090 m)|
|Maximum range |
| 5,300 nmi |
| 6,850 nmi |
| 6,700 nmi |
| 7,260 nmi |
ER: 7,670 nmi
| 8,000 nmi |
|Maximum fuel capacity|| 48,445 U.S. gal |
(40,339 imp gal/183,380 L)
| 52,410 U.S. gal |
(43,640 imp gal/199,158 L)
| 57,285 U.S. gal |
(47,700 imp gal/216,840 L)
ER: 63,705 U.S. gal
(53,045 imp gal/241,140 L)
| 64,225 U.S. gal |
(53,478 imp gal/243,120 L)
|Engine models (x 4)|| PW JT9D-7A/-7F/-7J |
| PW JT9D-7R4G2 |
| PW JT9D-7R4G2 |
| PW 4062 |
ER: GE CF6-80C2B5F
|Engine thrust (per engine)|| PW 46,500 lbf |
RR 50,100 lbf
| PW 54,750 lbf (244 kN) |
GE 52,500 lbf (234 kN)
RR 53,000 lbf
| PW 54,750 lbf |
GE 55,640 lbf
RR 53,000 lbf (236 kN)
| PW 63,300 lbf (282 kN)|
GE 62,100 lbf (276 kN)
RR 59,500/60,600 lbf (265/270 kN)
ER: GE 62,100 lbf
| 66,500 lbf |
- The 747 parasitic drag, CDP, is 0.022, and the wing area is 5,500 square feet (511 m2), so that f equals about 121 sq ft (11.2 m2). The parasitic drag is given by ½ f ρair v² in which f is the product of drag coefficient CDp and the wing area.
- "Required runway" length allows for emergency factors. Actual takeoff distances will normally be considerably shorter than those listed here. See Balanced field takeoff.
|BSCA||747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft|
Notable appearances in mediaEdit
Following its debut, the 747 rapidly achieved iconic status, appearing in various film productions such as the Airport series of disaster films, Air Force One and Executive Decision. The aircraft entered the cultural lexicon as the original Jumbo Jet, a term coined by the aviation media to describe its size, and was also nicknamed Queen of the Skies. The 747 was also referenced in the Earth, Wind & Fire song Let's Groove.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 "Great Planes-Boeing 747." Discovery Channel. Retrieved: October 28, 2007.
- ↑ Branson, Richard. "Pilot of the Jet Age." Time, December 7, 1998. Retrieved: December 13, 2007.
- ↑ "A380 superjumbo lands in Sydney." BBC, October 25, 2007. Retrieved: August 3, 2010. Quote: "The superjumbo's advent ends a reign of nearly four decades by the Boeing 747 as the world's biggest airliner."
- ↑ Orlebar 2002, p. 50.
- ↑ Wald, Matthew L. 747 "Fleet's Age at Issue During Flight 800 Hearing." New York Times, December 12, 1997. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
- ↑ Sutter 2006, p. 259.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 "747 Model Orders and Deliveries data." The Boeing Company, December 2011. Retrieved: January 18, 2012.
- ↑ "Technical Characteristics – Boeing 747–400", The Boeing Company. Retrieved: April 29, 2006.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 "747." |The Boeing Company. Retrieved: January 9, 2012.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Norton 2003, pp. 5–12.
- ↑ "Lockheed C-5 Galaxy, Partners in Freedom." NASA, 2000, see images in "Langley Contributions to the C-5". Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
- ↑ Jenkins 2000, pp. 12–13.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Norris and Wagner 1997, p. 13.
- ↑ "Boeing Multimedia Image Gallery 707". The Boeing Company. Retrieved: December 8, 2007.
- ↑ "Innovators: Juan Trippe." PBS. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
- ↑ Sutter 2006, pp. 80–84.
- ↑ "Air travel, a supersonic future?." BBC News, July 17, 2001. Retrieved: December 9, 2007.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 Rumerman, Judy. "The Boeing 747." U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission, 2003. Retrieved: April 30, 2006.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 Noland, David. "Passenger Planes: Boeing 747." "Info please." (Pearson Education). Retrieved: April 30, 2006.
- ↑ Irving 1994, p. 359.
- ↑ "Lockheed C-5 Galaxy, Partners in Freedom." NASA, 2000. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
- ↑ Irving 1994, p. 282.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 23.2 Sutter 2006, p. 93.
- ↑ Mecham, M. "In review: 747, Creating the World's First Jumbo Jet and Other Adventures from a Life in Aviation." Aviation Week and Space Technology, Vol. 165, No. 9, September 4, 2006, p. 53.
- ↑ "GE Aviation: CF6." GE Aviation. Retrieved: December 9, 2007.
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 Colson, Michael S. "Mechanical Engineering 100 Years of Flight." memagazine.org. Retrieved: December 9, 2007.
- ↑ Sutter 2006, pp. 121, 128–131.
- ↑ Guy and Wagner 1997, pp. 25–26.
- ↑ Jenkins 2000, p. 19.
- ↑ Sutter 2006, pp. 96–97.
- ↑ Guy and Wagner 1997, p. 19.
- ↑ Pascall, Glenn R. "Everett and Renton react differently to Boeing." Puget Sound Business Journal, September 26, 2003. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 "Major Production Facilities – Everett, Washington." The Boeing Company. Retrieved: April 28, 2007.
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- ↑ Boyer, Tom. "Boeing legend Malcolm Stamper dies." Seattle Times, June 17, 2005. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
- ↑ Irving 1994, p. 310.
- ↑ Irving 1994, p. 365.
- ↑ Irving 1994, p. 383.
- ↑ "History – "747 Commercial Transport." The Boeing Company. Retrieved: April 29, 2006.
- ↑ "All but off the Ground." TIME, October 4, 1968. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
- ↑ "The Giant Takes Off." TIME. Retrieved: December 13, 2007.
- ↑ "Boeing 747, the "Queen of the Skies," and "Celebrates 35th Anniversary." The Boeing Company, February 9, 2004. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
- ↑ Irving 1994, pp. 417–418.
- ↑ Irving 1994, p. 428.
- ↑ Uijt de Haag, P.A. et al. "Evaluating the risk from depleted uranium after the Boeing 747-258F crash in Amsterdam, 1992." Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 76, issue 1. (August 28, 2000), pp. 39–58." Retrieved: May 16, 2007.
- ↑ van der Keur, Henk. "Uranium Pollution from the Amsterdam 1992 Plane Crash." Laka Foundation, May 1999. Retrieved: May 16, 2007.
- ↑ Irving 1994, pp. 441–446.
- ↑ "The Trouble with Jumbo." TIME, September 26, 1969.
- ↑ Irving 1994, p. 436.
- ↑ Aircraft Incident Report 5-0046 Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- ↑ "The Paris Air Show in facts and figures." Reuters, June 14, 2007. Retrieved: June 3, 2011.
- ↑ "Boeing 747–400." Jane's All the World's Aircraft, October 31, 2000. Retrieved: July 15, 2011.
- ↑ Irving 1994, pp. 437–438.
- ↑ "Jumbo challenge" Flightglobal.com, November 6, 1997. Retrieved: July 15, 2011.
- ↑ Norris 1997, p. 48.
- ↑ "Jumbo and the Gremlins." TIME, February 2, 1970. Retrieved: December 20, 2007.
- ↑ "Breaking the Ground Barrier." TIME, September 8, 1967. Retrieved: December 19, 2007.
- ↑ "Jumbo Beats the Gremlins." TIME, July 13, 1970. Retrieved: December 20, 2007.
- ↑ "Ready or Not, Here Comes Jumbo." TIME, January 19, 1970. Retrieved: December 19, 2007.
- ↑ Smith, Bruce A. "Boeing Shuns Very Large Jets While Aiming for Longer Range." Aviation Week and Space Technology, January 1, 2001, pp. 28–29.
- ↑ 747X vs A380 "How to Reduce Congestion (PDF)." Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering, Virginia Tech. Retrieved: December 10, 2007.
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- ↑ "Planes for Rough Weather." TIME, August 3, 1970. Retrieved: December 20, 2007.
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- ↑ Davies 1990, p. 96.
- ↑ "Aircraft Fleet." Delta Airlines. Retrieved: July 31, 2011.
- ↑ "Turning Today's Challenges into Opportunities for Tomorrow." The Boeing Company. Retrieved: December 10, 2007.
- ↑ Aboulafia, Richard. "Commercial Transport Market Still in Rough Shape." Aviation Week and Space Technology, March 1, 2004. Retrieved: December 10, 2007.
- ↑ Wallace, James. "A380 buyer keeps mum about possible luxuries aboard cruise ship of the skies." Seattle Post-Intelligencer, January 24, 2005. Retrieved: June 3, 2011.
- ↑ 70.0 70.1 70.2 70.3 70.4 70.5 70.6 70.7 "Boeing 747 Classics." The Boeing Company. Retrieved: December 15, 2007.
- ↑ "Solutions Center." The Boeing Company. Retrieved: December 13, 2007.
- ↑ "Boeing 747SP." Airliners.net. Retrieved: November 23, 2007.
- ↑ 73.0 73.1 73.2 73.3 73.4 73.5 "Aircraft Owner's and Operator's Guide: 747-200/300 (PDF)."Aircraft Commerce. Retrieved: July 15, 2011.
- ↑ 74.0 74.1 74.2 "Boeing 747–300." Airliners.net. Retrieved: June 3, 2011.
- ↑ Lawrence and Thornton 2005, p. 54.
- ↑ Salpukas, Agis. "J.A.L. Orders 15 More of Boeing's 747-400's." TIME, July 1, 1988. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
- ↑ 77.0 77.1 Norris 1997, p. 88.
- ↑ "El Al History page." El Al Airlines. Retrieved: October 18, 2007.
- ↑ "Ask Us – Largest Plane in the World." Aerospaceweb.org, November 11, 2005. Retrieved: April 29, 2006.
- ↑ 80.0 80.1 80.2 80.3 80.4 "Boeing Outlines the "Value" of Its 747 Plans." The Boeing Company, September 2, 1996. Retrieved: June 7, 2011.
- ↑ 81.0 81.1 "BA warms to A3XX plan." Flight International, March 19, 1997. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
- ↑ 82.0 82.1 "Boeing Shelves 747X to Focus on Faster Jet." People's Daily, March 30, 2001. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
- ↑ Taylor, Alex III. "Boeing's Amazing Sonic Cruiser..." Fortune, December 9, 2002. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
- ↑ "Boeing Launches New, Longer-Range 747-400." The Boeing Company, November 28, 2000. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
- ↑ Holmes, Stanley. "Boeing's Reborn 747." Business Week, November 16, 2005.
- ↑ "A380 superjumbo lands in Sydney." BBC News. Retrieved: December 10, 2007.
- ↑ "Boeing Launches New 747-8 Family." The Boeing Company, November 14, 2005. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
- ↑ "Downhill for the jumbo." The Sydney Morning Herald, January 9, 2009. Retrieved: February 9, 2009.
- ↑ Ostrower, Jon. "Boeing's 747-8F lifts off on maiden flight". Flightglobal.com, February 8, 2010.
- ↑ "Boeing Sets 747-8 Freighter Delivery Schedule for Mid-Year 2011". The Boeing Company, September 30, 2010.
- ↑ Trimble, Stephen. "Boeing pushes 747-8F delivery back to mid-2011/" Air Transport Intelligence News via flightglobal.com, September 30, 2010. Retrieved: February 22, 2011.
- ↑ "Airbus A350 XWB puts pressure on Boeing 777." Flight International. November 27, 2007.
- ↑ Bowers 1989, p. 508.
- ↑ "Boeing 747–400 Airport Planning report, section 2.0, Boeing, December 2002 (PDF)." The Boeing Company. Retrieved: December 13, 2007.
- ↑ "Boeing 747-100/200/300 Technical Specifications." The Boeing Company. Retrieved: December 13, 2007.
- ↑ "Boeing 747–8 Technical Specifications." The Boeing Company. Retrieved: December 13, 2007.
- ↑ Sutter 2006, pp. 128–131.
- ↑ Sutter 2006, pp. 121–122.
- ↑ "Special Report:Air India Flight 182." airdisaster.com. Retrieved: December 13, 2007.
- ↑ "Her Majesty the Queen Against Ripudaman Singh Malik and Ajaib Singh Bagri." Supreme Court of British Columbia. Retrieved: December 13, 2007.
- ↑ 101.0 101.1 "ICAO Document 8643." International Civil Aviation Organization. Retrieved: January 20, 2010.
- ↑ "Boeing 747." Aircraft Spotting. Retrieved: December 7, 2007.
- ↑ "FAA Regulatory and Guidance Library (PDF)." FAA. Retrieved: December 12, 2007. See reference to Supplementary Type Certificates for freighter conversion.
- ↑ Jenkins 2000, p. 40.
- ↑ Kane 2004, p. 534.
- ↑ Itabashi et al. 1995, p. 155.
- ↑ Bowers 1989, pp. 516–517.
- ↑ 108.0 108.1 Airclaims Jet Programs 1995
- ↑ "Truth of NANJING must be known."Japan Corporate News Network. Retrieved: December 15, 2007.
- ↑ "Boeing 747-146B/SR/SUD aircraft", Airliners.net.
- ↑ "JAL Aircraft Collection." Japan Airlines. Retrieved: December 15, 2007.
- ↑ Airclaims Jet program 1995
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