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The Boeing 757 is a mid-size, narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the manufacturer's largest narrow-body twinjet and features two turbofan engines, a supercritical wing design, and a conventional tail. Designed to replace the 727 on short and medium airline routes, the 757 has a capacity of 186 to 289 persons and a maximum range of 3'100 to 4'100nmi (5'700 to 7'600km), depending on variant. Development of the 757 occurred in tandem with the 767, a wide-body twinjet with which it shares design features and two-crew glass cockpits. The operating similarities between the 757 and the 767 allow pilots to obtain a common type rating to operate both aircraft.

The 757 was produced in two fuselage lengths. The original 757-200 entered service in 1983, while the stretched 757-300, the longest narrow-body twinjet ever produced, entered service in 1999. A production freighter version, the 757-200PF, was offered along with a combi model, the 757-200M. Passenger models have also been converted to the 757-200SF cargo specification. The C-32, a military transport variant, was produced for the United States Air Force. All 757 models feature Rolls-Royce RB211 or Pratt & Whitney PW2000 series turbofans.

Eastern Air Lines and British Airways first placed the 757 in commercial service in 1983. Following its introduction, the 757 became commonly used by operators for domestic and transcontinental flights, and particularly with U.S. mainline carriers, European charter airlines, and Chinese domestic operators. The aircraft has also been purchased by several countries and private entities for use as government, military, and VIP transport.

Production of the 757 ended on October 28, 2004, after 1,050 had been built.[1] The final aircraft was delivered to Shanghai Airlines on November 28, 2005.[2] The 757-200 is the most common variant, accounting for the majority of all 757s ordered. As of 2010, Delta Air Lines operates the largest 757 fleet, and 945 examples are in airline service worldwide.[3]

DevelopmentEdit

BackgroundEdit

In the early 1970s, following the launch of its wide-body 747, Boeing began considering further developments of its narrow-body 727 trijet.[4] Designed for short- and medium-range routes,[5] the 727 was the best-selling commercial jet of the 1960s, and had become a mainstay of the U.S. domestic airline market.[6] Development studies focused on improving the 189-seat 727-200, the most successful 727 model.[7] Two approaches were considered: a stretched 727-300, and a new development study, code-named 7N7.[8] The former was a relatively inexpensive derivative using the 727's existing technology and three-engine configuration,[8] while the latter was a narrow-body twinjet which incorporated new materials and propulsion advances in the civil aerospace industry.[9]

File:Boeing 757-200 Farnborough 1982 Fitzgerald.jpg

Buoyed by strong interest from United Airlines, which had collaborated with Boeing on its basic design, the 727-300 was poised for program launch in late 1975.[4] However, following examination of the manufacturer's new technology studies, United's enthusiasm waned in favor of the 7N7.[4] Although the 727-300 was formally proposed to Braniff International Airways and other carriers, customer interest remained insufficient for further development.[4] Instead, airlines showed greater regard for the high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines, new flight deck technologies, lowered weight, improved aerodynamics, and reduced operating cost promised by the 7N7.[8] These features were also included in a parallel development effort, code-named 7X7, for a new mid-size wide-body which would become the 767.[10] Work on both proposals accelerated as a result of the airline industry upturn in the late 1970s.[4][11]

By 1978, the 7N7 studies focused on two variants: a 7N7-100 with seating for 160, and a 7N7-200 with capacity for over 180 seats.[12] The T-tail configuration of the 727 remained along with its narrow-body construction, forward fuselage, and flight deck layout, while a redesigned wing and new under-wing engines were added.[13] Boeing touted the 7N7 as offering the lowest fuel burn per passenger-kilometer of any narrow-body airliner.[5] On August 31, 1978, the 7N7 received its first airline commitments when Eastern Air Lines and British Airways announced launch orders totaling 40 aircraft for the −200 version.[5] These orders were formally signed in March 1979, at which time Boeing officially designated its new twinjet as the 757.[12] The shorter 757-100, which failed to attract any orders, was dropped, with its role eventually taken by the versions of the 737.[14]

Design effortEdit

Reflecting airline industry concerns over rising operating costs, the 757's design process emphasized fuel efficiency from the outset.[15] The industry's focus on reducing fuel expenses had increased following the Yom Kippur War of 1973, which had resulted in a spike in oil prices.[15] For its new narrow-body twinjet, Boeing forecast a 20 percent reduction in fuel consumption from new engines, plus an additional 10 percent from aerodynamic improvements, compared with preceding aircraft.[15] Besides efficiency gains, the new aircraft was intended to showcase improved capabilities over the preceding 727.[15] This included a higher maximum take-off weight (MTOW) for better takeoff performance in hot and high climates.[16]

File:Transavia Airlines Boeing 757-2K2 Wedelstaedt.jpg

The 757's twin-engine configuration was chosen for its reduced cost versus three- and four-engined designs.[17] The new airliner was Boeing's first to be launched with engines produced outside the U.S., with early customers selecting the British-built Rolls-Royce RB211-535C turbofan capable of 37,400lbf (166kN) of thrust.[12][18] Pratt & Whitney subsequently offered the 36'600lbf (163kN) thrust PW2037,[19] which Delta Air Lines launched with an order for 60 aircraft in November 1980.[10][20] General Electric also offered its CF6-32 engine early in the program, but eventually abandoned its involvement due to insufficient demand.[21]

As design work advanced, the 757 increasingly diverged from the 727 and took on characteristics of the 767, which was several months ahead in development.[4][12] Seeking to reduce risk and cost, Boeing combined development work on both twinjets, resulting in shared design features such as interior fittings and handling characteristics.[17][22] Computer aided design, first employed on the 767, was used for 35–40 percent of the 757's design drawings.[17] In early 1979, the manufacturer adopted a common two-crew glass cockpit for the 757 and 767, featuring similarly configured systems, shared instrumentation, avionics, and flight management systems.[22] Cathode-ray tube (CRT) color displays replaced conventional electromechanical instruments,[22] with increased automation eliminating the flight engineer position common to three-crew cockpits.[22] Due to their shared flight decks and handling characteristics,[22] pilots rated in the 757 could be qualified to fly the 767 and vice versa, after completing a short conversion course.[22] This was considered an incentive for airlines to operate both aircraft.[17]

File:Boeing 757-236 G-BNSF Air Europe Newcastle Airport.jpg

The wings developed for the 757 used a new aft-loaded design which produced lift across the majority of the upper surface, instead of a narrow band as in previous aircraft.[12] The airfoil was more efficient than preceding designs, with less aerodynamic drag and greater fuel capacity.[12] The improved lift performance necessitated an extensive set of flaps, leading edge slats, and spoilers to slow from cruise to landing speeds.[12] One of the last 727 vestiges, the T-tail, was dropped in late 1979 in favor of a conventional tail.[5][12] This allowed for more passengers to be carried without lengthening the fuselage, and avoided the risk of an aerodynamic condition known as a deep stall.[23] The same single-aisle configuration and upper-fuselage diameter as the 727 and other Boeing narrow-bodies was retained for lower drag and reduced production cost.[15][24] In deciding against a wider fuselage, Boeing cited market research which indicated that passenger preference for wide-body aircraft was less prevalent on the short-haul routes targeted for the 757.[13]

Production and testingEdit

Boeing's Renton factory in Washington, home of 727 and 737 production, was adapted to serve as the final assembly site for the 757.[17] Approximately half of the aircraft's components, including the nose section, wings, and empennage, were produced in-house, with the remainder subcontracted to primarily U.S.-based companies.[17] Assembly chain subcontractors included Rockwell International (main fuselage), Fairchild Aircraft (leading edge slats), and Grumman (flaps).[17] British Airways and Rolls-Royce initially lobbied the British aircraft industry to build 757 wings, but this did not occur.[5] Production ramp-up for the 757 coincided with the winding-down of 727 assembly, allowing the Renton factory to sustain productivity levels.[17] Final assembly of the first aircraft began in January 1981.[17]

File:British Airways Boeing 757-200 Marmet.jpg

The first 757 rolled out of the Renton factory on January 13, 1982.[21] The aircraft, equipped with Rolls-Royce RB211-535C engines,[25] completed its maiden flight on February 19, 1982, one week ahead of schedule.[26] The first flight was affected by a stall of the number two engine, following indications of low oil pressure.[27] After checking system diagnostics, company test pilots John Armstrong and co-pilot Lew Wallick were able to restart the engine, and the flight proceeded normally thereafter.[27] Subsequently, the 757 embarked on a seven-day weekly flight test schedule.[28] By the time flight testing began, the 757 had received 136 firm orders from seven carriers, namely Air Florida, American Airlines, British Airways, Delta Air Lines, Eastern Air Lines, Monarch Airlines, and Transbrasil.[17]

Five aircraft participated in the 757 flight test program, which took place over seven months for a total of 1,250 flying hours.[29] Evaluations included flight systems and propulsion tests, hot and cold weather trials, and route-proving flights.[30] Data from the 767 program helped expedite testing.[28] Flight tests recorded a 3 percent better-than-expected rate of fuel burn, resulting in a range increase of 370 kilometres (230 mi).[30] The production aircraft were also 1,650 kilograms (3,600 lb) lighter than originally specified, and Boeing subsequently claimed that the 757 was the most fuel-efficient airliner for flight sectors of 1,850 kilometres (1,150 mi) in length.[30] After the end of flight testing, the Rolls-Royce RB211-powered 757 received Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification on December 21, 1982, followed by Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) certification on January 14, 1983.[27] The first delivery to launch customer Eastern Air Lines occurred on December 22, 1982, approximately four months after the first 767 deliveries.[27][31] The first Pratt & Whitney PW2037-powered 757 rolled out approximately one year later, and was delivered to Delta Air Lines on November 5, 1984.[27]

Service entry and operationsEdit

Eastern Air Lines placed the 757 into commercial service on January 1, 1983, with its first flight on the Atlanta-to-Tampa route.[32] British Airways began operating the 757 on London-to-Belfast shuttle services on February 9, 1983, replacing Hawker Siddeley Trident 3B trijets.[32] Other early operators included charter carriers Monarch Airlines and Air Europe.[33] The 757's debut was relatively smooth, with fewer technical glitches than previous jetliners and quieter airport operations.[33] Early pilots underwent transition courses to gain familiarity with the new CRT-based cockpit.[33] Eastern Air Lines, the first 727 operator to take delivery of 757s, found that the aircraft demonstrated greater payload capability than its predecessor with reduced fuel burn and lower crew costs.[33] Compared to the 707 and 727, the new twinjet burned 42 and 40 percent less fuel per seat, respectively, on typical medium-haul flights.[34]

File:Eastern Air Lines Boeing 757-200 Wallner.jpg

Despite the 757's successful introduction to service, sales remained stagnant for most of the 1980s, a consequence of declining fuel prices and a shift to smaller aircraft in the post-deregulation U.S. market.[27] Although no direct competitor existed, 150-seat narrow-bodies such as the 737 and the McDonnell Douglas MD-80 overlapped with the 757's seating capacity and had lower acquisition costs.[17][27] A three-year sales drought abated in November 1983 when Northwest Airlines placed orders for 20 aircraft, which averted a costly production rate decrease.[35] An upgraded engine, the RB211-535E4, succeeded the −535C in October 1984.[27][36] In December 1985, a freighter model, the 757-200PF, was announced following a launch order for 20 aircraft from UPS Airlines,[27] and in February 1986, a freighter-passenger combi model, the 757-200M, was launched following a single order from Royal Nepal Airlines.[27] The freighter model featured a main deck cargo hold and introduced more powerful PW2040 engines, while the combi model could carry both cargo and passengers on its main deck.[37]

In the late 1980s, increasing airline hub congestion and the onset of airport noise regulations in the U.S. helped fuel a turnaround in 757 sales.[27] From 1988 to 1989, the 757 received 322 orders, including a combined 160 orders from American Airlines and United Airlines.[27][38] By this time, the aircraft was being commonly used for medium-haul domestic flights in the U.S., as well as transcontinental services.[39] Its design characteristics allowed it to operate to airports with stringent noise regulations, such as John Wayne Airport in Orange County, California,[40] as well as airports with aircraft size restrictions, such as Washington National Airport near downtown Washington, D.C.[11] The 757 had replaced older 707s and 727s, as well as McDonnell Douglas DC-8s and DC-9s.[41] The largest U.S. operators included Delta Air Lines and American Airlines, with both carriers ultimately operating fleets of over 100 757s each.[39]

File:Monarch Airlines Boeing 757-2T7 Innsbruck Wedelstaedt.jpg

In Europe, following the example of Monarch Airlines, in the late 1980s additional charter operators such as Air 2000 and LTU International also acquired the 757 for holiday and tour package flights.[39][41] In Asia, China became the largest 757 market following an initial order for three aircraft from the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) in October 1987.[39] After the CAAC's reorganization into multiple airlines, the twinjet came to be operated by China Southern, China Southwest, Shanghai Airlines, Xiamen Airlines, and Xinjiang Airlines, mostly on domestic routes.[42]

Expanding the 757's capabilities, the RB211-535E4-powered model was approved by the FAA for extended-range twin-engine operational performance standards (ETOPS) operations over the North Atlantic in 1990.[5][43] Approval under ETOPS regulations, a set of safety standards governing twinjet flights over oceans, allowed the aircraft to be deployed on transatlantic flights between North America and Europe.[5] The FAA's decision was based in part on the reliability record accrued by the 757 on lengthy transcontinental services across the U.S.[44] Following ETOPS approval for the PW2037-powered model in 1992, American Trans Air began using the 757 for six-hour nonstop transpacific flights between Tucson and Honolulu.[45]

Stretched variantEdit

Production of the 757 peaked in the early 1990s, reaching a rate of 100 aircraft built annually, as Boeing worked to fulfill the flurry of orders placed in previous years.[46] At the same time, possible upgrades to the aircraft were being considered.[14] For over a decade, the 757 had been the manufacturer's only narrow-body jet without a stretched variant,[14] and purchase options were largely limited to either Rolls-Royce or Pratt & Whitney engines and regular or additional fuel capacity.[25] Rumors of a long-range 757-200X and stretched 757-300X circulated at the time, but no formal announcements had been made.[14] European charter carriers were particularly interested in a higher-capacity version of the aircraft, which would allow it to take better advantage of its range.[39] A larger model would allow Boeing to meet the needs of charter customers, match the passenger lift capabilities of the 767-200 with lower operating costs,[47] and counter longer-range versions of the Airbus A321, a stretched version of the A320 which could carry nearly as many passengers as existing 757s.[39][48]

File:Condor B757-30 D-ABOM EDDF.jpg

In September 1996, following a launch order for 12 aircraft from charter carrier Condor Airlines,[39] Boeing announced the stretched 757-300 program at the Farnborough Airshow.[14] The larger derivative would offer a passenger capacity increase of approximately 23 percent, along with added cargo volume.[49] The 757-300 design effort was intended to be the shortest development program in Boeing history, with 27 months targeted between launch and certification.[14] While the stretched variant avoided radical upgrades from the 757-200, it received enhanced avionics and a redesigned interior.[50] A 737 Next Generation-style advanced cockpit was considered, but not adopted due to development cost concerns.[50] Four engine options were offered, namely the 43500lbf (193kN) thrust RB211-535E4B, the 42'600lbf (167kN) thrust PW2043, along with the PW2037 and PW2040 from the 757-200.[51] The first 757-300 rolled out on May 31, 1998, and completed its maiden flight on August 2, 1998.[39] During flight testing, Boeing and Condor developed expedited boarding procedures to shorten loading and unloading times for the lengthened aircraft.[52]

Following regulatory certification in January 1999, the 757-300 entered service with Condor on March 19, 1999.[39] Besides Condor, the stretched derivative was ordered by ATA Airlines (American Trans Air) - the North American Launch Customer - , Arkia Israel Airlines, Continental Airlines, Icelandair, and Northwest Airlines.[31] However, sales for the type remained slow, and ultimately totaled 55 aircraft.[39] Boeing had targeted the 757-300 as a potential 767-200 replacement for two of its largest customers, American Airlines and United Airlines, but both were not in a financial position to commit to new aircraft.[53] Overtures to additional charter customers also did not result in further orders.[54] By November 1999, faced with diminishing sales and a reduced backlog despite the launch of the 757-300, Boeing began studying a decrease in 757 production rates.[55]

Further developmentsEdit

While the overall 757 program had been a financial success, its continued production came into question in the early 2000s.[55] Airlines were again gravitating towards smaller aircraft such as the 737 and A320, at the expense of larger aircraft, because of their reduced financial risk.[55][56] In 2000, Boeing reexamined the possibility of building a longer-range 757-200X, spurred by interest from Air 2000 and Continental Airlines.[57] The proposed 757-200X featured auxiliary fuel tanks, plus wing and landing gear upgrades from the 757-300, resulting in a higher MTOW and a potential increase in range to over 5'000nmi.[57]

File:American Airlines B757-200 N176AA.jpg

In 2001, Boeing launched the 757-200SF program to convert second-hand passenger models for freighter use.[58] However, new sales continued to decline, and in 2003, a renewed sales campaign centered on the 757-300 and 757-200PF yielded only five new orders.[54] In October 2003, following Continental Airlines' decision to switch its outstanding 757-300 orders for the 737-800, Boeing announced the end of 757 production.[54] The 1,050th and last 757, a −200 model destined for Shanghai Airlines, rolled off the production line at Renton on October 28, 2004,[1] and was delivered on April 28, 2005 after several months of storage.[59] Upon the end of 757 production, Boeing consolidated 737 production at its Renton factory, downsizing its facilities by 40 percent and shifting staff to different locations.[60]

Since the end of production, most 757s have remained in service,[61] with U.S. carriers the primary operators.[39] However, rising fuel prices in the late 2000s put increasing pressure on airlines to improve the fuel efficiency of their 757 fleets.[62] From 2004 to 2008, the fuel cost to operate a 757-200 on mid-range domestic U.S. flights tripled.[62] In May 2005, the FAA granted regulatory approval for manufacturer-sanctioned blended winglets from Aviation Partners Incorporated as a retrofit on the 757-200,[63] with an estimated improvement of five percent on fuel efficiency and 200 nautical miles (370 km; 230 mi) on range through the reduction of lift-induced drag.[64][65] Continental Airlines received the first modified 757-300 with winglets in February 2009.[66]

File:Shanghai Airlines Boeing 757-200 Gu.jpg

Through the 2010s, the 757 is the only aircraft type used by all five U.S. legacy carriers, with Delta Air Lines, American Airlines, United Airlines, Continental Airlines, US Airways, America West Airlines (now a part of the US Airways Group), and Northwest Airlines (now a part of Delta Air Lines) operating large 757 fleets.[67] In the short term, the 757-200 has been succeeded in active production by the 737-900ER, touted by Boeing as filling in the range and capacity gap previously filled by the former aircraft.[68] However, the 757's 200-seat capacity and 4'000nmi range remains unique among narrow-body aircraft.[69] To replace the 757, airlines have elected to either downsize to smaller aircraft with fewer seats and less range such as the 737-900ER and A321, or upsize to larger, longer-range 787 Dreamliner and A330-200 wide-body jets.[48][70] In 2011, Boeing officials announced that the company had no plans to develop a new 200-seat airliner to replace its largest narrow-body aircraft.[48][71] Instead, the company was directing its focus to the larger 145- to 180-seat market segment occupied by the 737-700 and 737-800.[71]

DesignEdit

OverviewEdit

File:Privatair Boeing 757-23A HB-IEE.jpg

The 757 is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit featuring a single fin and rudder. Each wing features a supercritical cross-section and is equipped with five-panel leading edge slats, single- and double-slotted flaps, an outboard aileron, and six spoilers.[17] The wings are swept at 25 degrees and optimized for a cruising speed of Mach 0.8 (533mph or 858km/h)).[17] The reduced wing sweep eliminates the need for inboard ailerons, yet incurs little drag penalty on the short- and medium- distance typically flown by the 757, as most of those flights are spent climbing or descending.[72] The airframe further incorporates extensive use of carbon-fiber reinforced plastic wing surfaces, Kevlar fairings and access panels, plus improved aluminium alloys, which together reduce overall weight by 2000lb versus preceding aircraft.[17][73] Since 2005, blended winglets have been available as a retrofit to increase fuel efficiency and range.[64][66]

To distribute the aircraft's weight on the ground, the two main landing gear on the 757 have four wheels each and the forward nose gear has two wheels.[74] The landing gear was purposely designed to be taller than the company's previous narrow-body aircraft in order to provide ground clearance for stretched models.[75] The 757-200 was the first jetliner to offer carbon brakes as a factory option, supplied by Dunlop.[76] A retractable tailskid is installed on the 757-300's aft fuselage due to its greater length.[77]

The 757 was designed as an advanced technology replacement for the 727.[17] Many of the technologies introduced on the 757 are shared with the wide-body 767, including its auxiliary power unit, electric power systems, flight deck, and hydraulic parts.[17] Related design and functionality allows 757 pilots to obtain a common type rating to operate the 767 and share the same seniority roster with pilots of either aircraft.[78][79]

Flight systemsEdit

File:Boeing 757-200 flight deck view.JPG

The 757's flight deck uses six Rockwell Collins CRT screens to display flight instrumentation.[10] The displays are used for electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) and engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS) information, allowing pilots to handle monitoring tasks previously performed by the flight engineer.[10] An enhanced flight management system, improved over versions used on existing 747 models, is fitted to automate navigation and other functions,[80] while the inertial reference system (IRS) introduced on the 757 features laser-light gyros.[5] On the 757-300, the flight deck is upgraded with the addition of a Honeywell Pegasus flight management computer, enhanced EICAS, and upgraded software systems.[39] To maximize operational commonality, the 757 features a sloped cockpit floor and the same forward cockpit windows as the 767, resulting in similar pilot viewing angles.[81] The nose section is also wider and more rounded than previous narrow-body aircraft in order to accommodate the common flight deck.[82] This design features a more spacious cockpit area with unobstructed panel visibility and room for an observer seat.[83]

The 757 is fitted with three independent hydraulic systems, one powered by each engine, and the third using electric pumps.[17][74] A ram air turbine is fitted to provide power in emergency situations.[74] A basic form of fly-by-wire is employed for spoiler operation, utilizing electric signaling instead of traditional control cables.[17] The fly-by-wire system, shared with the 767,[17] reduces weight and provides for the independent operation of individual spoilers.[84]

InteriorEdit

File:757-200 Pantallas Tactiles Delta.jpg

The 757 interior offers up to a six abreast layout with a single center aisle.[5] Originally optimized for flights averaging two hours in length,[17] the interior debuted lighting and cabin architecture designs aimed at a more spacious impression.[17] As on the 767, the cabin features garment bag length overhead bins and a rear economy class galley.[85] The bins have twice the capacity as those on the preceding 727.[17] To save weight, crushed honeycomb is used for interior paneling and bins.[17] In contrast with previous evacuation slide designs which were not equipped for water landings, the main exits feature combination slide rafts similar to those found on the 747.[17] The 757's interior was later adopted for other 1980s narrow-body Boeing aircraft, such as the 737.[86]

In 1998, the 757-300 debuted a redesigned interior derived from the Next Generation 737 and 777, including sculptured ceiling panels, indirect lighting, and larger overhead bins with an optional continuous handrail built into their base for the entire cabin length.[87] The 757-300 also adds centerline storage containers mounted in the aisle ceiling for additional escape rafts and other emergency equipment.[88] The new interior subsquently became an option on the 757-200.[89] In the 2000s, with wheeled carry-on baggage becoming more popular, American Airlines and Delta Air Lines installed overhead bin extensions on their 757-200s to provide additional storage space.[90][91] Larger bins are also part of aftermarket interior upgrades which include updated ceiling panels and lighting.[92] Template:Clear

VariantsEdit

File:United Airlines B757-200 on down the glideslope.jpg

There are several variants of the 757, with standard and stretched length. The 757-200 was the original, launched in 1979 with introduction into service in 1983.[25] The lengthened 757-300 was launched in 1996 with introduction into service in 1999.[39] The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) classifies all variants based on the –200 under the code "B752", while the –300 is referred to as "B753."[93]

757-200Edit

The 757-200 is the definitive version and comprises the majority of 757s sold.[31] It has a maximum take-off weight (MTOW) of 255,000 lb (116,000 kg), a length of 155.25 ft (47.32 m), and a maximum range of 4,100 nautical miles (7,600 km; 4,700 mi).[19] According to manufacturer specifications, the –200 can carry up to 228 passengers in a typical single class configuration.[19] The maximum FAA certified capacity is 239 passengers, provided that emergency exits are configured to regulatory specifications.[94] The 757-200 was available in two different door configurations; the baseline version had three standard size doors per side with a smaller emergency exit aft of the wing on each side,[5][49] while the alternate version had three standard doors per side and two plug-type over-the-wing exits.[49]

Total production for the 757-200 numbered 913 aircraft.[31] In July 2010, 759 examples were in airline service with operators Delta Air Lines (180), American Airlines (124), United Airlines (96), Continental Airlines (41), US Airways (25), Thomson Airways (27), China Southern Airlines (17), and other airlines with fewer aircraft.[3]

757-200PFEdit

File:United Parcel Service 757-200PF.jpg

The 757-200PF ("PF" for Package Freighter) is the production cargo version of the –200. It has a standard MTOW of 250,000lb, with an option for 255,000lb.[95] Maximum range is 3,150nmi when fully loaded.[95] Up to 15 containers or pallets can be accommodated on the main deck of the –200PF.[95] Total main deck container volume is 6,600cu ft (52 m3) and the two lower holds provide 1,830 cu ft (52 m3) for bulk loading.[95] These provide a combined maximum revenue payload capability of 87,700 lb (39,800 kg) including container weight.[95]

The 757-200PF has no passenger windows or interior amenities.[96] A large main deck cargo door is installed on the left-hand side of the forward fuselage,[97] and all other emergency exits are omitted. Pilots board the aircraft through a single entry door installed immediately aft of the flight deck on the left side of the aircraft. The main deck cargo hold has a smooth fiberglass lining,[98] and a fixed rigid barrier serves as a restraint wall next to the flight deck.[96] The barrier contains a sliding door for crew access.[96]

Total production for the 757-200PF numbered 80 aircraft.[31] As of July 2010, all were in service, with UPS Airlines (75) the largest operator of the type.[3] Other customers for the 757-200PF include Blue Dart Aviation (2), Arrow Cargo (1), Ethiopian Airlines (1), and European Air Transport Leipzig (1).[31]

757-200MEdit

File:Nepal Airlines 757-200M 9N-ACB.jpg

The 757-200M is a convertible version where the seats can be removed in order to place cargo on the main deck.[99] The –200M was delivered to Royal Nepal Airlines (later renamed Nepal Airlines) in September 1988.[31] The Kathmandu-based carrier needed a plane that could operate from high altitude airfields, and due to variable passenger traffic, also needed a plane that could be converted to a freighter.[100] Boeing saw market potential for the –200M, as convertible models of the 737 and 747 had proved popular.[101] However, Nepal Airlines' example was the only one ever ordered.[3]

In 2010, Pemco World Air Services launched an aftermarket conversion program to modify 757-200s into 757 Combi aircraft, in which a portion of the passenger cabin is replaced with a cargo storage area. As of October 2010, the fourth 757-200 had begun conversion.[102]

757-200SFEdit

The 757-200SF ("SF" for Special Freighter) is a conversion of passenger 757-200s for cargo use.[58] The conversion involves adding a cargo door on the left forward fuselage,[103] identical to the 757-200PF, and removing all passenger amenities. All but the two forward exits are sealed shut, and cabin windows are deleted. The first –200SF aircraft entered service in March 2001 with DHL Aviation, following the carrier's acquisition of 44 aircraft for freighter conversion.[58] In September 2006, FedEx Express launched a US$2.6 billion fleet renewal initiative based on retiring its 727 aircraft and acquiring second-hand 757s for –200SF conversion from 2008 and 2016.[104] As of July 2010, 55 aircraft were in service, with DHL Aviation (22) the largest operator, followed by FedEx Express (20), European Air Transport Leipzig (10), Blue Dart Aviation (2), and Shanghai Airlines (1).[3]

757-300Edit

File:Delta Air Lines B757-351 N586NW LAX.jpg

The 757-300 is the stretched version of the –200 and the longest single-aisle twinjet ever built.[105] The variant is 23.4 ft (7.1 m) longer than the –200, owing to fuselage plugs inserted before and after the wing.[106] Its MTOW is 272,500 lb (123,600 kg).[51] The fuel capacity was not increased over the –200 and therefore the maximum range is reduced by approximately 13 percent to 3,395 nautical miles (6,288 km; 3,907 mi).[19][51] The –300 has a maximum capacity of 289 passengers.[51] Airlines ordered 55 examples, of which all have been delivered.[31]

The 757-300 has eight standard doors, with two over-the-wing exit doors per side.[107] It has proved popular with charter airlines for its efficiency and dense capacity.[39] In July 2010, all 55 aircraft were in airline service with Continental Airlines (21), Delta Air Lines (16), Condor Airlines (13), Arkia Israel Airlines (2), Thomas Cook Airlines (2), and Icelandair (1).[3]

Government, military, and corporateEdit

The 757 has been purchased for government, military, and private service. The aircraft is used as the official transport for the President of Argentina, with the military serial Tango 01,[108] and is also used as VIP transport for the President of Mexico under the callsign TP01 or Transporte Presidencial 1.[109] The United States Air Force (USAF) has fitted four 757-200s for VIP duties under the designation C-32A, with missions including the transport of the Vice President of the United States under the callsign Air Force Two.[110] The C-32As are painted in the standard blue and white paint scheme used by the USAF for its VIP transport fleet.[110] The USAF also operates two 757-200 aircraft, designated C-32B, for use by the U.S. State Department Foreign Emergency Support Team.[111][112]

File:C-32.jpg

The Royal New Zealand Air Force operates two 757s converted to −200M standard for delivering equipment, medical evacuation, troop movements, and VIP transport.[113] A more powerful auxiliary power unit and retractable airstairs are fitted. The royal family of Saudi Arabia uses a 757-200 as a flying hospital.[114] In the mid 1990s, Lockheed Martin used a 757 as a testbed for F-22 Raptor avionics and sensor integration.[115] The modified 757 had a forward canard with sensors above its cockpit to simulate the F-22's wing sensor layout and a forward F-22 fuselage with radar and other systems.[116]

During the 2004 U.S. presidential election, Senator John Kerry chartered a 757-200 from TransMeridian Airlines nicknamed "Freedom Bird" as his campaign jet.[117] During the 2008 U.S. presidential election, then-Senator Barack Obama charted a 757-200 from North American Airlines for the same purpose.[118] In 2008, British heavy metal band Iron Maiden chartered and customized a 757 for their "Somewhere Back in Time World Tour", of which singer Bruce Dickinson was the pilot.[119] Template:Clear

OperatorsEdit

File:Icelandair.b757-200.tf-fiv.arp.jpg

The largest 757 operators are Delta Air Lines, United Airlines, and American Airlines. As of 2010, Delta Air Lines' 757 fleet is the biggest at 196 aircraft,[3] including −200 and −300 models acquired from its merger with Northwest Airlines. United Airlines' 757 fleet numbers 158 aircraft as of 2010, making it the second-largest operator.[120] United's 757 operations grew in size following its merger with Continental Airlines in 2010.[120] Prior to 2007, American Airlines was the largest operator, operating a fleet of 142 757s.[121] American Airlines' fleet decreased with the retirement of 757s inherited via the carrier's buyout of TWA, due to the fact that they used Pratt & Whitney engines rather than Rolls-Royce like the remainder of American's 757s.[122]

As joint launch customer, British Airways operated the 757 for longer than any other operator, but retired their last three aircraft in November 2010.[123] The carrier unveiled one of its last 757s in a special retro style livery on October 4, 2010 to celebrate the fleet's retirement after 27 years, matching the color scheme that it introduced the aircraft into service with in 1983.[124] Subsequently, the type remained in operation with the company's subsidiary, OpenSkies.[125]

Orders and deliveriesEdit

More than 1,000 units of the 757 were ordered over the duration of the program, of which 1,049 aircraft were delivered.[31] By the end of production, 1,050 examples had been built.[1] The prototype 757 was not delivered to any customer, as it remained with the manufacturer for testing purposes.[126]

Year Total 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992
Orders 1049007037431850445913123335
Deliveries 1049211142945456754464243697199
Year 19911990198919881987198619851984198319821981198019791978
Orders 50951661484613452262364038
Deliveries 80775148403536182520000
  • Data through the end of production in 2004.[1][31]

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Incidents and accidentsEdit

As of December 2011, the 757 has been involved in 22 aviation occurrences,[127] including eight hull-loss accidents.[128] Six crashes and 11 hijackings resulted in 575 occupant fatalities.[129] The first fatal event involving the 757 occurred on October 2, 1990 when a Xiamen Airlines 737 was hijacked and collided with a China Southern Airlines 757 on the runways of Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport, China, killing 46 of the 110 passengers and 12 crew members on board.[130] Two 757s were hijacked on September 11, 2001 and crashed with no survivors, namely United Airlines Flight 93 with 44 on board near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, and American Airlines Flight 77, with 64 on board and 125 died on the ground at the Pentagon, Arlington, Virginia.[131]

Accidents involving human error include American Airlines Flight 965 on December 20, 1995, which crashed into a mountain in Buga, Colombia killing 151 passengers and 8 crew members with four survivors,[132] and the mid-air collision of DHL Flight 611 near Überlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany on July 1, 2002, with the loss of two on board plus 69 on a Tupolev Tu-154.[133] AA Flight 965 was blamed on navigational errors by the crew,[130] while DHL Flight 611 involved air traffic control errors.[133] Accidents attributed to instrument obstruction during aircraft storage, leading to subsequent pilot disorientation include Birgenair Flight 301 on February 6, 1996 in Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic, with the loss of all 189 passengers and crew,[134] and Aeroperú Flight 603 on October 2, 1996 off the coast of Pasamayo, Peru, with the loss of all 70 on board.[130]

From 1994 to 1996, the FAA updated air traffic control regulations to require greater separation behind the 757 than other large category jets because of its tendency to produce strong wake turbulence.[135][136] This followed a series of investigations into multiple incidents of small private aircraft experiencing loss of control when flying closely behind 757s, of which two resulted in crashes with a total of 13 fatalities.[135]

Two 757 incidents were survived by all on board. Britannia Airways Flight 226A crash landed on September 14, 1999 near Girona-Costa Brava Airport, Spain with no fatalities.[130] On October 25, 2010 American Airlines Flight 1640, a 757-200 flying between Miami and Boston, United States, suffered the loss of a two-foot section of the plane's fuselage which tore away at approximately 31,000 feet. The plane safely returned to Miami.[137]

SpecificationsEdit

File:B757FAMILYv1.0.png
757-200 757-200F 757-300
Flight deck crew Two
Seating, typical 200 (two-class)
234 (one-class)
N/A 243 (two-class)
289 (one-class)
Length 155 ft 3 in (47.32 m) 178 ft 8 in (54.47 m)
Wingspan 124 ft 10 in (38.05 m)
Tail height 44 ft 6 in (13.56 m)
Wing area 1,951.0 sq ft (181.25 m2)
Wing sweepback 25°
Wing aspect ratio 7.8
Wheelbase 60ft (18.29m) 73.3ft (22.35m)
Cabin width 11.6ft (3.54m)
Cabin length 118.4ft (36.09m) 141.8ft (43.21m)
Empty weight 127,520lb
(57,840kg)
142,400lb
(64,590kg)
Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) 255,000lb
(115,680kg)
272,500lb
(123,600kg)
Take-off run at MTOW 9,550 ft (2,910 m) 9,600 ft (2,900 m)
Cruise speed Mach 0.80 (530mph, 458 knots, 850km/h at cruise altitude of 35,000ft or 10.66km)1
Range, loaded 3,900nmi (7,222km)
−200WL: 4,100nmi (7,600km)
3,150nmi (5,834km) 3,395nmi (6,287km)
−300WL: 3,595nmi (6,658km)
Maximum fuel 11,489 US gal (43,490 L) 11,276 US gal (42,680 L) 11,466 US gal (43,400 L)
Service ceiling 42,000ft (12,800 m)
Engines (×2) Rolls-Royce RB211, Pratt & Whitney PW2037, PW2040, or PW2043
Thrust (×2) PW: 38,400–43,734 lbf (171–194.54kN)
RR: 37,400-43,100 (166–191.71kN)

Sources: Boeing 757 airport planning report,[49] and Boeing 757 specifications[19][51][95]

1 Note: speed is at altitude, not sea level. See NASA Mach number calculator page for explanation about Mach number and example calculations.

See alsoEdit

|related=

|similar aircraft=

Bibliography

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External linksEdit

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Template:Boeing airliners Template:Boeing 7x7 timeline Template:Boeing model numbers Template:Aviation lists Template:Good article Template:Use mdy dates


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